SOC246H1 Lecture Notes - Labour Candidates And Parties In Canada, Macau, Fluid And Crystallized Intelligence

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10 Mar 2012
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Sociology of Aging
Week 8 Class Notes: Work, Employment, and Retirement
Sexuality and aging one of test Question
% of men partnered are sexually active (80%) across the board, high rate of
partnership
more man 57-6470% sexually active
75-84 60% had sex in the past 12 months
women:
partnership drops off in both
sexually behaviour tends to drop off greater as they age (75-84)20% sexually active
and 50 %
Introduction
Employment is a central life course experience that connects our lives to a complex,
modern economy. Here are some of the key ideas we will discuss:
Basic concepts and models describing aging, employment, and the life course
What are some of the challenges faced by older workers?
Retirement
I. Key concepts:
Employment vs. work
Work can include productive activity that is not included under formal employment
1950: people who are more educated have longer period of employment and
a shorter retirement period
Current: Longer retirement because people exit the workforce earlier. They
retire earlier because of pensions plans available
And we can also see a trend of Woman vs Men in the career line idea
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Labour market vs. labour force
Labour market refers to a demand for employees; labour force refers to the available
set of potential employees
Labour Market: demand for employees with a set of skill in a given time
Labour Force: Supply sideavailability for potential employees ( pool of worker)
In the labour force, there is a low rate of participation from older adults 5 +)
Graph- only 58 % of men in Italia are participating in the work force
But in other countries such as Madagascar and Pakistan, the whole idea of retirement
is a foreign concept.
75 and above still part of the workforce and Pakistan being a patriarchy country, we
see more men working than women.
So there is a pattern of age difference among diff places
Canada:
65+ 16% of men and 7% of woman in the workforce and 6/10 man are 60-64
1990 5% of men of older age working
We also see more woman in 1990 an increase to 25%
The greying of the Canadian Labour force:
-Currently, workers 65+ makes up over 15% of the Canadian workforce and workers
60+ make up nearly 9%
9.5 millions baby boomers expected to retire in the next 20 years
-Policy consideration
a) Strategic plans to recruit or retain workers in specific sectors and occupation
b) Retaining older workers
c) Restructuring pension plans to help older workers delay retirement or return to
work.
d)Adapting workplaces for aging labour force and dealing directly with age
discrimination how to adapt to be more age friendly
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II. The occupational life cycle model
The idea that there is a set time for completion of education, beginning a career,
hitting typical milestones and promotions, and retiring
Note: the olcm refers to a general model for employment and the life course;
David Eckerdt’s article “No Career for You” also refers to “careers”—people’s
individual job trajectories. The two concepts are very similar, though distinct.
Individual life choice match up with the transition
Career line diminishing
Note: clearly premised on the work life of men
Observers note that the occupational life cycle is in decline. Several influences
include:
- mergers and acquisitions which workers are necessary to get the job done
- out-sourcing and foreign competition many form of jobs disappearing
- job automation by technology how we have robots doing the manufacture
job which lead to a decrease of available jobs
Influence how people interact with job availability when certain jobs decrease
The economy increasingly favours a contingent labour force (similar to the idea of a
day labourer).
An advantage to people who are flexible, adapt quicker, can identify opportunities
and are not nailed down to a single firm
Flexibility and adaptation wide variety in economy
Entertainment industry long term contract. They pay you for years
Conclusion for David (article)destandardization of the occupational life cycle: are
multiple careers a solution
Encouraging having multiple career we should adapt in order to have multiple
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