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SOC250Y1 (69)

March 14.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Joseph Bryant

March 14, 12 - Powerful families would make sure that their male offspring would be trained to obtain high positions in the church. - ^Contended to become popes. The Sacralization of Christian Combat th th - In 8 and 9 centuries – Popes Leo IV and John VII promised that all who died in defending against Arabs, Magyars, or Vikings will win eternal life. - By 1050, the Church monopolizes the “ordination” of knights, widely considered as constituting an 8 thSacrament. - The initiate‟s armour and weaponry would then be blessed and smeared with holy oil - Pope Gregory VII (1073-85) proclaimed that military service for Christ could secure a complete remissio peccatorum - Holy war as penance – killing the “enemies of god” is deemed more effective… than prayer, fasting, or works of mercy. - Crusading – a devotional act of armed pilgrimage, initially to reclaim the Holy Land from Muslim control, but which expanded to include religious wars against pagans in Eastern Europe and the Baltic region, Greek and Russian Orthodox Christians, Tartars, and Christian heretics, such as the Cathars and Hussites, as well as political enemies of the popes (in these operations, massacres against local Jewish populations were common). - Christian-Muslim hostility had been rising, owing to Seljuk Turkish pressure on the Byzantines and, since 1009, when the Fatimid „mad‟ Caliph al-Hakim ordered the destruction of churches and synagogues throughout North Africa and the Middle East… - In 1063, Pope Alexander II involved in the Reconquista – Christians fighting against Muslims would be absolved of sins if died in battle. - Pope Urban II, calls for deliverance of the Holy Land, Nov. 1095 – declares it an “act of penance so severe that it is fully sufficient to remit all the sins” of the confessing crusaders - Crusader ceremonial: - Taking the cross – inspired by Matt. 19:29 - Purse and staff (like the pilgrim) - The sacred vow - Crusader rights and privileges: moratorium on debt repayment and interest; exemption from tolls and taxes; automatic release from excommunication; personal confessors who had wide powers of absolution. - Monks served as recruiting agents – pledged that monasteries would safeguard property and the families of the crusaders.- Spiritual incentives – Guilbert, Benedictine Abbot of Nogent (1053-1124): G-d has instituted in our time holy wars, so that the order of knights… might find a new way of finding salvation. And so they are not forced to abandon secular affairs completely by choosing monastic life or any religious profession…. But can attain in some measure G-d‟s grace while pursuing their own careers, with the liberty and in the dress to which they are accustomed.” – knightly was & life style is now sacred &salvific - Guilbert‟s history of the First Crusade, published in 1121, titled Dei gesta per Francos = „G-d‟s Deeds Performed through the Franks‟. - Crusader testimonials confirm many acted “in order to obtain G-d‟s pardon for my crimes” “to gain Christ” many opted for was rather than monasteries. - Fighting as an act of self-sanctification – Crusaders made confession and took communion before every military engagement. - Dominician friar on the Crusader dead: “by this kind of death, people make it to heaven who perhaps would never reach it by another road” - Efforts were made to claim martyrdom for fallen Crusaders – but the Church was ambivalent - An Early crusade song, French c.1145 – the Turks‟ dishonorable seizure of “G-d‟s fief”: …No one will have any fear of hell… - The wife‟s reward: - “The woman who with a willing heart sends her dear husband on this journey (if she remains virtuous) shall purchase half of his reward. She shall pray for both of them here, and he shall go and fight for them both there” - Between 1096 and 1101, a series of crusading invasions flow eastwards - Some 60000 gather for
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