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SOC265H1 (64)
Bonnie Fox (30)
Lecture

SOC265H1 10.01.2013 LECTURE 1.docx

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC265H1
Professor
Bonnie Fox
Semester
Winter

Description
SOC265H1 LECTURE 1 – 10/01/2013 - This course is not on blackboard. - Separate website: on syllabus. www.chass.utoronto.ca/~bfox/soc265 - Slides (lecture outlines) posted on this site (night before lecture). - There are non-mandatory tutorials. - - I. Considering Gender Differences Over Time - A. The ‘Bad Old Days” – the 1950s - • clothing styles - Clothes were very uncomfortable for most women; women wore girdles (corsets). Often women wore 2-3 inch heels with pointed toes much of the day. These were not only uncomfortable but also deformed feet. Many old women now have deformed feet from this. Women endured horrible things to have certain hairstyles (poofy hair) – wore hair curlers are night, and to keep them in place they had spikes which people slept on. This mostly applies to middle-class women in 50‟s. - • sexual expression - Not okay for girls outside of marriage. Risked crossing the line/ruining reputation – also risked pregnancy, a high risk of this, since contraception was not available (only available in mid-60‟s. Contraception was not effective and was only women‟s responsibility. If you got pregnant you had to drop out of school, were sent away to have your baby, even legally babies were considered illegitimate and the kids were often given up for adoption. Many of the women didn‟t even have an option to see their baby. - • employment (sex segregation, „marriage bars‟, - earnings gap) jobs were advertised as for men or women – for women only secretary, teacher, nurse, telephone operator. Jobs were different. This was gender/sex segregation of jobs. When a woman married – especially teacher – you had to quit your job in most cases. Marriage bar. It was not okay for married women to teach. For factory workers, you wouldn‟t have to face a marriage bar – since low wages. - • responsibility for housework and child care Women and men married young. Girls often in their teens. You took your husbands name without even blinking. Typically have children immediately. Expected to stay home full time. There were some employed women but there were many social stigmas against them. Concerns about latch-key children – children who would be left alone while their mother worked – everybody believed these children would become juvenile delinquents. Women who were in the labour force on average earned only about 60% of what men made on average. Gender relations were very conventional – men expected to earn. Researchers found that this was a heavy responsibility for men – a lot of men had early heart attacks due to the financial responsibility/burden. These men often gave their wives allowances (groceries, etc). - • emotional display Men were expected to be stoic (not to cry, not to display emotion in public especially). Several presidential candidates lost their possibility of becoming president because they teared up in public – one had a tear running down his cheek and ended his possibility of becoming president. - • the meaning of violence against women Not seen as a problem. If there was suspicion that a husband was hitting his wife, the common reaction was that this is nobody‟s business, only their business. Sexual harassment was not a concept – it was not coined until the early 1970‟s. The common response was humour – or that this is simply flirtatious. It didn‟t matter if it was a boss or anything. - • media images Mad men. - B. Evidence of change over time Position of women relative to men has changed. - clothing styles Incredibly loosened up – much more comfortable. Before (early 60‟s) you couldn‟t even wear jeans in public. Many more unisex styles. The range is much wider. However, high heels are back. Image/expectations have change – models are now much much thinner. Breast implants is common now / cosmetic surgery. Most girls over 12 are on diets. Standards around beauty on one hand have loosened up but still backward trends appearing. Celebrities still dress in 50‟s/60‟s style. - education Women getting more BAs/university degrees than guys now. More jobs, etc. Women are getting almost as many masters/phds as men, gap is narrowing. Way fewer women than guys in computers/science fields. In 1999, only 20% of engineers were women. 2008-2009 fewer than 17 percent were women. Implications of jobs/salaries/employment. - employment Majority of women in labour force and are here to stay. This is not a change for women of colour. African Canadian women have been in the labour force for most of their lives. For middle-class women this is a change. Women are now in jobs that were formerly only men‟s jobs. Sex segregation in labour force is less than it used to be. Questions that remain are: What are the gaps in earnings? What is the size of it? Do women have similar opportunities for promotion? Etc. Differences in terms of race in the labour force. - expectations about housework and child care When women are in the labour force – male partners will do half of the housework and childcare – expectations have changed. But women are still doing more. Employment of nannies is an issue – class/racial/ethnic differences among women. - sports Now quite common for women to be active in sports. But in high leve
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