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Bonnie Fox (30)
Lecture 2

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Bonnie Fox

SOC265 Lecture 2 1-17-13 - In the 1970s when gender studies was developing, the idea of a distinction between “sex” and “gender”. Sex was strictly anatomical and biological, gender is about everything else- personality, orientation to the world, behavior, etc- and it is socially created, i.e. gender is developed through socialization. - Bodies are not just given; they are social processes and creations. Your behavior shapes your body. - Nature does NOT just give us two sexes- every year some people are born between the two and have ambiguous genetalia- they are called intersexed. Doctors then come and alter it surgically so they look like one or the other. - Male and Female bodies: The Sexed Body as a Biological ‘Given’ or as Entangled with & Shaped by the Social? o Thomas Laquer, Making Sex- on the history of our assumptions about the sexed (m/f) body  (1) The One-Sex model  Women as inferior men; essentially the same model- women were the same things as men, but inferior (Aristotle, Greeks) but women’s reproductive organs are inside and upside down, thus being inferior. There were no separate words for the different organs, everything was the same- the process of sex (arousal, erection, orgasm) was the same  Gender as ‘given’ by nature & sex as social or changeable o Greek slaves were treated the same, both men and women. Their sex was seen as irrelevant because they did the same work; as if they were neutered. o Greek myth about the man who wanted to know if women enjoy sex as much as men do, so he just changed himself into a women biologically. Thus suggesting the Greeks thought that sex could be changed socially, but gender is natural  Patriarchal society o The fact that women can have babies and men cannot was irrelevant to the Greeks- it didn’t matter. Men and women were the same, just women were a little bit less o The Greeks knew that some girls were raped and became pregnant, and realized that they weren’t having orgasm, but they still persisted that because men and women were the same, both had to achieve orgasm to have a pregnancy  (2) The Two-Sex Model (19 century)  Women and men are different, however different  gender inequality  Sex as ‘given’ by nature and gender as social or changeable  A response to revolutionary ideas challenging inequality (late 18 century)  Higher education for post-pubescent women will damage their bodies- their hormones will be out of sync and their bodies will be harmed 
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