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Lecture 10

SOC265 Lecture 10

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University of Toronto St. George
Bonnie Fox

MARCH 21 2013 SOC265 Lecture 10: Housework – Making Family; Gender and Racial Divisions of Work I. Understanding Household Work, especially Housework A. “The problem that has no name.” Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique (1963) (1) upper class full time women in the suburbs, something wrong being that (2) B. First-wave feminists (1800s): household work as oppressive – private service work (1) Women‟s rights movement, 1850s (2) Living through the industrialization, the cooking and cleaning lef at home was oppression, why? Because the workers were working alone C. Second-wave feminists (1960s, 1970s) (1) Marriage as a labour contract, men appropriating women‟s labour (Radical Feminist) i. Men benefitted from this (2) Meg Luxton, More Than A Labour of Love –breadwinners‟ power & privilege in singleearner working-class families, given homemakers‟ economic dependence. And the importance of domestic labour to a capitalist economy (Political Economy) i. Likely that the mens needs and desires are to come first ii. Reproducing the labour force that the workforce benefited from (3) Work that is unpaid, invisible, without lasting products, unskilled, repetitive and monotonous i. Childcare is also included (4) Marjorie DeVault, Feeding the Family – the work of making “family” i. Preparing family meals, a lot of work that goes into that and symbolically they help create family (sitting down and sharing of the day) ii. Often the women continue to do work throughout the meals, women will orchestrate the conversation II. Are Men Sharing the Household Work, Now That Women are Sharing the Income Earning? A. Fox on the factors that move mothers to do more of the housework a. Women‟s bargaining power b. Men felt that since they were doing the earning of the money, they did not need to contribute through household work Time budget sample: give a chart with a 24/hour with 15mins increments, write down every 15mins what they are doing Table 1: Work Hours per Week (Paid, Unpaid, and Total), Parents with Children Under 18 Years of Age Paid Work 1965 1975 1985 2000 Married mothers 6.0 15.2 19.7 23.8 Married fathers 47.8 47.2 42.5 42.5 Single mothers 28.4 18.9 24.5 28.9 Unpaid Work 1965 1975 1985 2000 Married mothers 52.7 39.9 39.7 41.1 Married fathers 12.3 12.0 18.9 21.5 Single mothers 30.8 31.9 25.8 36.7 MARCH 21 2013 Total Work 1965 1975 1985 2000 Married mothers 58.8 55.0 59.4 64.9 Married fathers 60.1 59.2 61.4 64.0 Single mothers 59.2 50.8 50.3 65.6 Source: S. Bianchi, J. Robinson, M. Milkie, 2006, Changing Both men and women are doing more childcare overtime men‟s times on childcare is increasing overtime Women spent 4.5x more than men Rhythms of American Family Life. B. Dual-earner couples‟ total hours of work per week: women do an average of 71 hours, men do an average of 64 hours. (U.S.- Bianchi a. 9 extra weeks of work, that extra hour a day adds up C. Katherine Marshall, “Converging Gender Roles” in Canada: total hours of work for dual earners, women and men, about the same; but women do more unpaid work and men do more paid work a. 25-54: in Canada on avg, total work hours are the same (60 sum) b. When looking at dual income, same number of total hours c. Single to marriage = more housework / marriage to parenthood = substantially more housework d. D. Veronica Tichenor, on the importance of gender a. We are “assigned” to do work because of our gender b. You do gender by doing housework c. This is gendered work, its
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