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SOC265H1 (64)
Bonnie Fox (30)

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University of Toronto St. George
Bonnie Fox

SOC265H1 WEEK 7 The Historical Development of Our Gender Order Mar. 7 , 2013 1 Patriarch Social Order: heads of the household (men) have authority over everyone in the household  This means servants, wives, children, etc.  How the economy is organized has a whole lot to do with hoe gender looks like and how household do  ‘Very small scale production’ that occurred in the household  People that worked together, lived together  Peasants and artisansthe married couple was the labour force  Husbands and wives worked together to produce their family supply though husbands and wives were not equal  There was structural basis and causes (cultural ones as well)Coming out of the Catholic Church etc.  Men owned the property (the only people)They owned what was essential to survive th  By 15 century, women couldn’t be in business alone  Women were dependent on marriage and men  Men and incentive to exercise power and authority over their household because they were their labour force (to be successful anyone living with you needs to work hard)  Good/bad things about family living togetherHusband and wives work closely together and men can exercise authority over their wives (easily)  Men can control women sexually because children are potential workers  The situation was also more complicatedMen need their wives as assistance to do work that need to be done  There is evidence that women were in a possession because they were so economically importantpossibility women can become ‘partners’ with their husbands  Lots of evidence men beating their wives (allowed) I. The Development of Industrial Capitalism (1800s)  Capitalism requires that there be a destruction of an economy where people can support themselves  People who can support themselves won’t work with other people  For peasants, they have to look access to the land  There becomes a development of two classes o Capitalist class—produce products for a product o Working class A. The creation of a working class, dependent on waged work, as masses of peasants lost access to and ownership of land. 1.The working class cannot afford to live without labor (provides them a wage) 2.It happened first in England (industrial revolution)  Merchants sell raw wool on an international level  Then its about the working class selling land when it became too expensive 3.As merchant were buying land to produce sheep and take care of themall lands was in a rise in England 4.The peasants who were paying rentloose ability to rent easily 5.“Public land” that everyone had right to useif merchants became powerful, buying everyone else they can usually get power to sit in parliament, setting laws 6.It was 1850s, when public land was taken away and peasants had to migrate out of their villages and look for wage work 7.Merchants realized they can manufacture woolthey would give little shops money and eventually build to male them bigger and start hiring more people  Large working class need to work for wages B. The demise of an economy centred on the household and husband-wife production team 1. The ability of men and women to work together is failing apart nd 2.2 thing that is happening is that as men start to work for someone elsethey are leaving the SOC265H1 WEEK 7 The Historical Development of Our Gender Order Mar. 7 , 2013 2 household to go work for someone else C. The removal from the household of (much) production for the market 1.Undermining women’s (and men’s) ability to produce their subsistence in their household  This makes a household change in labour (women left behind)  Women are becoming more marginal as production is moving  Peasant womenwives married od peasant men were able to take care of their family with foraging, animals, and gardening  They thought women could support their family  But when peasant men and women lose their land then they are forced to go to work 2.Eroding the independence and identity of skilled craftsmen and peasants; becoming “wage slaves”  Women made anything from ¼ of what men made o They paid people based on hoe many food they needed for their family (women were smaller and did not eat too much)  Women were better off to be working in their household as their husbands assistance  Women lack access to the tradelearning the business  Common in Medieval timesif a women’s husband died, she would still work his business  Women turned to all sorts of things for money (turning their house to an inn, so people could move in and pay rentmaking things to sell in the streets)  Every trade had their own costume most family portraits back in the day you’ll always see the husbands wearing his garment because “that’s who he was” D. Working men’s struggle to improve their position 1.The campaign for a shorter work week: won via protective legislation for “dependent” children and women  Much of the labour force before the Industrial Revolutionwomen were working and so were children (children at 8 were working in factories if they need money)  When women had childrenthey dropped out of the labour force  “Outwork” is work that factory owners could sent into the home for mothers with children to be able to make money (lowest paid workpaid by the goods) o Some men would look at these products and say it was not even good and the women would not be paid  Life expectancy was 32 years old for working class people  Children worked in factories for 12 hours with no heat in the winter, no break, no air in the summer, and barely no food  Men wanted a 60 hours work per week which would bring their hours down and
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