Individuals appropriated nature for themselves not possess: led to the emergence of marx"s: species being, consciousness drives this process. Soc301 - lecture - nov. 29, 2011: surplus: 2 diff. faces, 1. Stepping stone of all cultural advances - set aside time to think about things - not just thinking about how to subsist: 2. Mode of production means of prod: what is left for the labourer is subsistence, not talking about absolute subsistence. Subsistence varies historically: capitalists are no diff. from the feudal aristocrats according to marx - they privatize the means of prod. in contemporary marx"s time it is industrial capital, before in feudal society it was land. This is the argument used by the capitalist class. People assumed inequality was either a natural process occuring out of competition, or had a functional component that would result in collective benefits.