lecture notes

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Published on 4 Jul 2011
School
UTSG
Department
Sociology
Course
SOC309Y1
Professor
SOC309 Lecture 6 – June 9, 2011
Stigma & HIV
Objectives:
-to understand stigma as a sociological construct
-understand how stigma is used to control people
-explore debilitating impact of stigmas on HIV patients
-personal biography – illnesses change our expectations about your personal
biography (how you thought your life would unfold)
-1996 was referred to as the proteus moment; prior to this moment people prepared
to die, after they understood they could live longer
Goffman theory of Stigma
-Goffman used a symbolic interactionist perspective to understand stigma
-for him it is an attribute that is discrediting with a particular interaction
-focus on public’s attitude towards a person who possesess an attribute that falls
short of societal expectations
-he notes 3 categories of stigma:
oabnormalities of the body (ex. the Vietnamese kid who came to sick kids
for operation on his facial growth)
oblemishes of individual character (ex. will weak, unnatural passions; these
are inferred from mental disorder, homosexuality)
important to note that Goffman was writing in the 1960s, so many
of these behaviours no longer viewed as blemishes, as many
people have come public with their problems
otribal stigma of race, nation and religion (beliefs are transmitted thru
lineages and equally contaminate all members; ex. people who reveal their
religion may be criticized)
-disease that are associated with these stigmas:
ovictims are seen as responsible
odisease is incurable
odisease is not understood well
othe symptoms can’t be concealed
Link and Phelan’s theory of stigma
-stigma occurs when there is convergence of interrelated components, such as
labeling, stereotyping, separation and discrimination
Mann’s Theory of Stigma
-stigma characterized by three epidemics:
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oof HIV infection
oof AIDS cases
oof stigma
Herek’s Theory of Stigma
-AIDS related stigma are directed at people perceived to have HIV/AIDS and the
people they are associated with
-stigma contains discounting, discrediting, discrimination, prejudice
-AIDS stigma is:
ouniversal
oshaped in each society by different factors (ex. in Canada it is connected to
homophobia; in Thailand it is connected with the sex trade; in Russia it is
connected with the exploding heroin use; except in Africa, where blame is
against white homosexual men, but most infections are in heterosexuals)
oassociated with unpopular groups and builds on pre-existing prejudices
against those groups
-findings are that stigma leads to people being:
ofired from jobs
o denied housing
o evicted from their homes
o denied services
-stigma:
oaffects already stigmatized groups
o acquired in stigmatized ways
ois terminal and wasting
Forms of Stigma
-enacted stigma such as discrimination and rejection (actively discriminated
against, such as gays who have highest rates of enacted stigma among teens)
-felt stigma, which are the feelings of shame (such as feeling that professor will
give you a bad mark because he is racist)
-illness-related rejection (ex. girlfriend rejects you after finding about your illness)
-internalized responses to illness stigma – these people suffered debilitating effects
of the illness
-National AIDS Trust in the UK measured if people were HIV prejudice
-it found that there was link between stigma and health outcomes of HIV patients
-it was considered to be a successful campaign as people were able to think about
the disease
Snyder Theory of Stigma
-he argues there are 3 aspects:
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Document Summary

1996 was referred to as the proteus moment; prior to this moment people prepared to die, after they understood they could live longer. Link and phelan"s theory of stigma stigma occurs when there is convergence of interrelated components, such as labeling, stereotyping, separation and discrimination. Mann"s theory of stigma stigma characterized by three epidemics: www. notesolution. com. 1: of hiv infection, of aids cases, of stigma. Aids related stigma are directed at people perceived to have hiv/aids and the people they are associated with stigma contains discounting, discrediting, discrimination, prejudice. Snyder theory of stigma he argues there are 3 aspects: www. notesolution. com. More stigma when condition is more readily apparent to others, when it disrupts normalcy. Lipoatrophy affects people"s ability, particular gays to have a high quality of life depletion of fat substances in the face. Sayles study on experiences of social stigma and implications for healthcare among a.