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SOC312 Chapter 9.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Brent Berry

SOC312: Chapter 9 International Migration The Complex Nature of International Migration  International migrants represents 3% world’s population  Migration represents a responses to ‘push’ and ‘pull’ factors in countries of origin and destination  Internal migration  decision to emigrate made on basis of rational cost-benefit principles Basic Concepts  International migration: The movement of people across national borders; these peoples are called immigrants by the receiving country Classification of International migrants:  Citizens (returning migrants) and foreigners  Foreigners: o Returning ethnics  persons who are admitted by a country other than their own because of their historical, ethnic or other ties with that country o Migrants with the right to free movement because of agreement or treaty between their state of citizenship and the state they reside in o Foreigners admitted for special purposes  Ex. foreign students, foreign trainees, foreign retirees, settlers (PR or immigrants, become naturalized once min requirements have been met) o Migrant workers:  Ex. seasonal migrant workers, project-tied migrant workers, contract, temporary migrant workers, established migrant workers, highly skilled migrant workers o Economic Migration  Ex. business travellers, immigrating investors o Asylum migration  Ex. refugees, persons admitted for humanitarian reasons, asylum seekers, persons granted temporary protected status, persons grated stay of deportation o Irregular migrants o Migrants for family reunification The Canadian immigrant system:  2 ways for foreigners to legally enter Canada: o Permanent residence status  Family class (people with close relatives in Canada)  Must be sponsored by Canadian citizen or PR  Independents (skilled workers and investors/entrepreneurs)  Must pass a point based test  Investors  min investment in a Canadian business  Refugees  Under qualifications of UN Convention are always admitted, and those that don’t qualify may still be admitted on humanitarian grounds o Temporary residence status (students, refugee claimants, temporary workers)  Under refugees, there are: o Government-assisted refugees  Selected abroad o Privately sponsored refugees  Selected abroad o Asylum seekers  First arrive in country and then claim refugee status Data Sources and Basic Measures  Data can be collected from administrative records + census  Edmonston and Michalowsky identify 5 classes of international migration data: 1. Statistics collected at points where people move across international borders (border crossings, seaports, airports) 2. Statistics regarding passports and applications for passports, visas, work permits and other documents for international migration 3. Statistics obtained through population registers a. Most countries don’t have one 4. Statistics obtained from censuses or periodic national population surveys 5. Statistics collected through various special or periodic inquiries  Census  most accessible data source doesn’t distinguish between different categories of immigrants (or identify the legal status of immigrants)  Numbers of illegal migrants are estimated through indirect methods based on a combo of data sources Estimating International migration Vital Statistics Method:  Net international migration= difference between two population counts from two censuses minus difference between the number of births and deaths that occurred in the interval  Europe, NA and Oceania experienced net migratory gains, developing regions lost more population than they gained through migration  Limitations: o All this data can tell us is the net balance of migration o We don’t know whether net balance of 0 means equal number of immigrants and emigrants or no migration at all Residual Method of Estimating Emigration:  Uses population data from two successive censuses, plus the numbers of births, deaths, and persons entering the country in the interval between the two censuses Migration in History: An Overview  Diamond’s interpretation of the prehistoric migratory experience of Homo  moved out of Africa, first to Middle East and parts of Southeast Asia, to Europe, NA, northern Asia, Alaska, S. America, Caribbean  Quest for expanding territory through war, conquest, persecution  migration and also quest for food  Ongoing exploration and colonization led to new migrations  trade and commerce helped to spread knowledge and skills across civilizations  Immigration history since beginning of ‘modern era’ (around year 1500) to now can be divided into 4 distinct phases 1. Mercantile Period (1500-1800) a. European colonization of the New World: Americas, parts of Africa, Asia, and Oceania b. Emigrants were agrarian settlers (largely), administrators and artisans (smaller), and even smaller number of entrepreneurs who established plantations to produce raw materials for Europe’s growing mercantile economies c. Rise of plantations  need outside source of cheap labour, started slave trade 2. Industrial Period (1800-1914) a. New World nations wanted European migrants b. 60 million Europeans settled in Americas c. Increased pop pressures in Europe and relatively low wages were some forces d. Economic prosperity of New World was a strong ‘pull’ factor e. Industrial Revolution  destabilized Europe’s rural economies, many left to seek opportunities overseas  encouraged family to join (social networking) f. Emigration rates fell sharply before WW1 (because wages = living conditions in Europe began to catch up with those in the New World) 3. Period of limited migration between WW1, WW2 (1914-1918, 1939-1945) a. Major receiving countries believed nationals should have priority access to whatever work was available b. More stricter legal restrictions on immigration 4. Post-industrial period (since 1960’s) a. 2 ndriods (1945-70)  West needed migrant labour to rebuild economies b. 2 Period (1973-)  severe oil shortage sparked major recession. Led to: i. Changes in global investment patterns ii. Micro-electronic revolution iii. Erosion of traditional skilled manual occupations iv. Expansion of service sector v. Growth of informal sectors vi. Casualization of employment (increasing part time work and less secure employment conditions) vii. Increased differentiation of labour forces on gender, age, ethnicity c. Countries exported manufacturing operations to developing countries d. Immigration intensified dramatically due to globalization th  Major features of international migration since late 20 Century: o Migration has become a global process o Volume and pace of international migration have reached unprecedented levels o Migration has become increasingly di
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