SOC312 – January 14, 2014
• Canada’s population and global context, what are demographic data, what are the
• 2 test, not cumulative (based on readings, class, everything we saw in class) and
independent research project
• Today: the introduction of population, what is demography? What are
Chapter 1. The Study of Population
• What is population?Agroup of people (human population) people living together
and prescribe the geographic territory.
• Populations are changed from birth and death (birth-death), between time to time
(due to the migration, cross-borders), loss populations due to the opportunity.
• Population is a dynamic aggregate (always change, people are move in and out)
• Health is changing, different cohorts, conflict with people during the WWII,
housing shortage, always different change in basic population processes.
• Pg.4 (some description)
• As demographic, we summarize the population – mean age of population,
measures of dispersion, standard deviation, lots of summary of statistics.
• Major challenges – to find boundaries of a population
• What are you measuring? What are the boundaries? (e.g. U.S. always change the
boundaries of politics)
Formal Demography and Population Studies
• Age, sex, martial status, education – demography is… work focuses on three core
areas, how did demography shape the population?
(1) Snapshots of population: where people live, distribution of people
(2) Understand different processes: fertility, mortality, nuptiality, and migration
(why did change over time?)
(3) Relationship between statics and dynamics
• Sociology among the social science, is the broadest and a wide range of
perspective, more explanation power (weakness: loss of focus, too broad, not
• Book divides demography into
(1) Formal demography: how many people, what kind (imply distribution and
characteristics), and where (concentration of population, geographic
(2) Population studies: little boarder, how come? (i.e. why, how, where, when,
who), so what? (Implications: present and future)
Nature of Demographic Change
• Important to understand processes – fertility (how many are born), mortality
(how many are dead), and migration (population bouncing formula)
• Pg. 8 population (in-migration, out-migration) • Birth – death: plus (nature increase)
• Over the long-term, population are really explored: growth of human
population linear (continuous), geometric (something in between), and
Demographic components of Canada’s population growth between 1996 and
• Immigration is important component – people coming in
• Natural increase (decline componentally) and net migration (has been
important part of Canada for a long time).
• Canada society has been aging over time but not as big as some country’s
population as Japan.
• Canada and U.S. are relatively open to the migration – less severe than some
other wealth countries in the world.
• Immigration deals with the population aging in Canada.
Graphic represents of linear, geometric (not seen as much as logistic or linear),
exponential (increase dramatically over the time), and logistic population (S-curve,
growth quickly and reaching the limit)
Individual Behavior and Demographic Processes
• Max Weber: broken down internal structure of individuals
• Individual action produces patterns and phenomena at the macro (aggregate)
What kind of decisions is made? Which are shaped by social
environments, values, norms, and institutional structures?
Women obtaining more education, often delay entry into the marriage
and fertility demographic change are occurred
Economies also change