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Social Control Lec 3.doc

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University of Toronto St. George

Social Control Lecture 3 January 24, 2011 Essay Assignment -Headings are good. Use a simple, short introduction that isn’t overly dramatic. No argument, but a clear direction. It’s a research paper, not argumentative paper. Use simple sentences, definitions, lists, and paragraphs. If you are citing a study to make your point, cite what they studied, and what they found. You don’t need to go into a huge writing of their methodology, etc. Nice short conclusion. Use 2, 3, or 4 substantive sections. You should have a minimum of about 2-3 sources. History of Social Control Practices • Practices like ideas change over time • The history of control practices isn’t linear, it’s messy. o They don’t change in a linear way because there are a lot of actors that play within any given social control field. In terms of prisons, for example, there are a lot of people with a vested interest in prisons. Thus, some may want to push things in certain directions, or undercut the efforts of others, etc. Thus, it can result in a messy mix or hybrid of different trends. At the same time, these trends can be contradicted by counterforces as well. o Trends can also come out of different places with different actors behind them. o Harm reduction looks to manage consequences and that is what Insight does (controls drugs and allows people to get clean needles and such). This approach is different from the one the government would use, however. Early History of Penal-Welfarism th • Mid 19 century in England • Effort to control the disorderly o Poor houses and policing as we know it o Here we are talking about the early history of penal welfarism. The question is what do we do with all these social problems? Well we begin to see efforts to deal with the social problems like policing, etc. Before this, policing wasn’t a separate body on the streets responsible for ensuring order. Prior, people essentially did their own justice and crime control wasn’t put in the hands of this separate group or institution. • Penal/welfare nexus o So with industrialization (prostitution, etc) they decided to get together a group of people (night watchmen/police) to monitor the streets. This it was a response to the changing conditions. At this time, there were many plans or schemes, and they were often created by the well of and had a moral base. So there was a humanistic/moralistic undertone to the institutions and such. It was about saving souls, helping the poor and destitute who were seen as unable to help themselves. So it is this coming together of the social control system and the welfare system. So they realized that if you want control, in some capacity you need to think about welfare. They were starting to think about social problems, and also think about social problems in terms of their root problem. • “Victorian Penalty: vs. “Modern Penalty o Innes glosses over this in terms of the Victorian penalty vs the modern penalty. The Victorian approach was clearly laid out with a hierarchy of punishments that got more serious the more serious the offence got. In Modern, there is this shift. They started thinking about social problems and their relationship to social control, and decided things needed to be done to help and fix people, and that was to be how they would realize control. Thus, punishments or penalties became about correction. The idea was that punishment can be a correction to something and draw people back in line. If you contrast with the Victorian theme, it was tit for tat. You do something to me and I will do something back. There is a bit of a change with the modern approach. -Side Note: There’s been a backlash against penal welfarism as people think there needs to be more of a concern to look after the victims with victim impact statements and other methods like victim and offender reconciliation. Penal-Welfarism (This characterized the 1890’s to 1970’s) • Rehabilitation- This is a hallmark of penal welfarism in terms of the idea of making offenders better and putting programs in place to integrate offenders into society (counseling, parole, programs, etc). • Discretion- This is the idea that judges should have a right to have a level of discretion at sentencing to take in certain factors (past criminal history, etc). Also, there was the idea that you should be able to keep people in prison for as long as it takes until they are rehabilitated. • Expert Knowledge- Professionals are getting folded into this system and they now have their own vested interests in how this plays out. They help perpetuate this approach because they want to be seen as legitimate and such. So they use research they have done, etc. Other groups will all weigh in from all corners or expertise factoring in for good and for bad. • Modernism- There is a modernist undertone to penal welfare with an undertone of a belief in science and being able to make the worl
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