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SOC313- Gender & Self Control .docx

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Candace K.

Gender and Self Control – January 30 I. Labeling Women Deviant: Edwin Schur A. Presentation of Self 1. Emotions  mousy, bitchy, aggressive, etc. 2. Appearance  being overweight/too thin, dressing flashy etc. are all appearance norms 3. Speech & Interactions B. Marriage and Maternity  marital; still single, etc.  maternity; still single? Too many children? Unfit mother C. Sexuality 1. Behavior  cock-tease, frigid, nymphomaniac, etc. 2. Orientation  butch, queer, etc. -there is a fine line walking between what is acceptable and what is not for women based on these categories -Occupational Norms where do women go once they finish places like law school ? Ghettoized; family practice, divorce law, etc. Female Doctors go into Ob/Gyn and pediatrics -there are some changes but not enough II. Gender and Crime: Women Don’t Commit Crimes A. Biology: Lombroso & Ferrero  Criminal appearance; they look different than us  credited with inaugurated in the biological explanation of female crime  THE FEMALE OFFENDER By: LOMBROSO & FERRERO o biological deterministic view o they were interested in three factors: 1. How the female offender can be identified 2. Rate of female offending 3. Types of female crimes (Theft, Prostitution. Fraud, etc.) -female criminals had “masculine” characteristics; SAVAGE woman -women display fewer physical anomalies than men which in turn is indicative of their closeness to lower, less differentiated forms of life -limited range of cognitive facilities could also explain women’s fixation in particular areas of crime -DISCREDITED (obviously) -only analyzed people who were convicted & sent to prison -he drew connections between women’s physiology and the nature & extent of crime; this has become a recurring theme over time B. Hormones and Crime -the idea that you can connect premenstrual syndrome with female offending -this has been used as a successful defense in Britain, but not in the Americas -there are serious problems in establishing a cause and effect relationship  she has PMS, commits a crime, but we also know that the menstrual cycle is a very delicate thing and stress can bring on a menstrual cycle; so to argue that PMS causes crime is silly when the causal direction could be the reverse -hormones invoked when a woman kills her children  POST PARTUM DEPRESSION C . Psychology and Crime: Freud -wasn’t interested in criminal behavior but rather how we become social beings -he argued that we start out with an ID (instinct, with no socialization)  then the EGO is developed, and eventually a SUPEREGO (conscious; don’t do evil don’t commit crimes, etc.) -1925 article on psychological consequence of the anatomical distinctions b/w the sexes -1931 essay on female sexuality  at some point women experience penis envy  the way to deal with this was to become a mother -the influence of this kind of perspective has been relevant in prostitution studies- they have personality traits to want to dominant men, homosexual inclinations as a sign of role confusion -virtually all scholarship that assumes that female criminality represents a departure from prescribed sexual behavior is based on Freudian notions -this approach to female criminality didn’t die out with Freud D. DMS-IV and Women -defines all kinds of disorders surrounding criminal behavior -when the DMS IV was being reviewed, two new categories were called:  self-defeating personality disorder o women who put others needs ahead of their own  late luteul phased diysphoric disorder (PMS) o women who experienced extreme stress as an aspect of menstruation -MARGARET EKLER & someone responded by suggesting another disorder to add to DMS-IV  inability to derive pleasure from doing things for others, and to feel threatened by women who fail to disguise their intelligence -self defeating personality disorder was never added to the DMS –IV -there is a clear tendency to pathologize female offending; it is “not normal” for women to commit crimes -homicides have the best statistics  males account for 90% of homicides in the US ; constant over time  men commit more homicides than women but do they differ in who they kill? o acquaintances 55%, strangers at 25% -when you look at women, 37% kill an intimate partner, and the next category is their children at 10%  unusual for a woman to kill a stranger -Canada, Australia, Europe, etc, show similar statistics E. Sex Differences in Lethal and Non-lethal Violence -gap in gender isn’t as large as it is in homicides ; men still dominate though at 80% in the US -non lethal violence dominated by males OUTSIDE the US as well  even more so in European countries -why are women less involved in violence? -expectations of behavior will affect the developmental outcome -women’s lesser involvement in violent crime has been interpreted as a natural/normal fact ; more passive individuals; conversely some people say being violent is indicative of being violent as well  if you assume this is true, then anytime a woman commits a violent crime it is abnormal and cannot be attributed to the same factors for a man Her Article -interviewed women in jail; if they had initiated any acts of violence with a stranger or intimate partner -recorded the details up to 10 incidents of violence -that article only focuses on the women who said “I was involved in a violence incident -the focus of the article: could it be that women do violence/for the same reasons as men do -5 broad categories of motivation -jealousy, self-defense being dis-respected, self-help -lots of overlap III. Gender and Victimization: The Failure to “Deviantize Offensive Male Behaviors A. War Crimes  war prizes (?)  Vietnamese women & Japanese soldiers – “comfort women”  rape was ethnic cleansing  rape cannot be seen as incidental; str
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