Class Notes (806,888)
Canada (492,503)
Sociology (3,199)
SOC313H1 (109)
all (20)


9 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George

SOC313 MARX READINGFebruary 27 2013 Many current theoretical approaches to deviance causation tend to neglect a crucial level of analysis the specific interactive context within which rule breaking occurs Tend to focus on rather abstract initial group properties such as opportunity structures and norms rather than on the interactive group processes out of which behavior emerges In what can be called the trampoline model of social control norm violations lead to reparative social control responses The systematic and reciprocal effects become most apparent after the deviance appearsIn contrast theorists such as Reiss and Hirschi see social control as an important variable in the production of deviance Most interpretations tend to reify the categories of authority and criminal and to draw the line between them too sharply The miss the interdependence that may exist between these groupsThe idea that authorities may play a role in generating deviance is not newAuthorities have been seen to create deviance by defining some of a wide range of behavior as illegal using their discretion about which laws will then be most actively enforced and singling out some of those who violate these laws for processing by the criminal justice system In spite of calling attention to the role of authorities the emphasis in the labeling approach is usually placed on what authorities o to others already known or thought to be a deviantIts main concern is with secondary rather than primary deviance Situations where social control contributes to or even generates rule breaking behavior include these 3 idealtypes 1 Escalation by taking enforcement action authorities unintentionally encourage rule breaking 2 Nonenforcement by strategically taking no enforcement action authorities intentionally permit rule breaking 3 Covert facilitation by taking hidden or deceptive enforcement action authorities intentionally encourage rule breakingDrawn on interviews and observations made over a 7 year period in 18 US police departments while studying community police patrols community service officers civilian police planners and performance measures ESCALATION It is not simply that social control has no effect rather it can amplify In escalation the very process of social control directly triggers violations 5 major analytic elements of escalation are 1 An increase in the frequency of the original violations 2 An increase in the seriousness of violations including the greater use of violence3 The appearance of new categories of violators andor victims without a net diminution of those previously present 4 An increase in the commitment andor skill and effectiveness of those engaged in the violation 1
More Less

Related notes for SOC313H1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.