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SOC313H1 (109)
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Sex Offenders.doc

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University of Toronto St. George

Sex Offenders [Film: Hunting for Bobby Oatway] • Convicted sex offender run from his victims • Stalks victims • Released from BC and moved to Toronto • Hedrick’s girls – victims • One in five prison inmates are sex offenders • Convulsions brought by high fever, speech impediment, hard childhood • Married high school gf, three kids, he sexually abused his son (mentally disability) • Putting him in a cage and constantly poked at, you don’t’ know who you are dealing with • If he is back in prison, when he leaves, he can go into hiding and his victims won’t be informed of his whereabouts I. Why Focus on Sex Offenders? • Lots of media II. Range of Sex Offenders and Changes in Rape and Sexual Assault Laws • Huge group, range in sex offenders (sex with minors to rape) • You would increase reporting and prosecution if it wasn’t just rape, includes inappropriate touching, objects in private parts, etc. • Changed legislation from rape to sexual offenses • Increase report is important because sex is the darkest of the dark figure of crime • Some evidence that these changes was effective, reports increased by 47% since 1983 • 1988 Canada created new legislation there were new categories for what might be child molestation • Sexual interference: sexual touching of a child under the age of 14 • Sexual : 14-18, authority over child III. Canadian Legislation Pertaining to Sexual Abuse of Children 1. who are the victims of child sexual abuse • 10 year period study, 7 police agencies, 2/3 of victims were females, 98% perpetrators is male, 2. relational distance between the victim and offender • in 81% of the cases, the attacker was known to the victim, 24% was parent, 17% other family members, 14% were acquaintances IV. What is Known About the Dangerousness of Sex Offenders • Recidivism: reoffend again • How? Conviction rates, self-report, arrests, re-imprisonment, charging • Most comprehensive studies: A. Recidivism Data: Bureau of Justice Statistics (1994) study of 9,691 male sex offenders followed up for 3 years • Follow sex offenders and all other offenders • Recidivism was measured by re-arrest, re-conviction and re-imprisonment 1. Rearrest for any offense • Sex offenders have lower recidivism then others • 43% for sex offenders; 68% for non sex offenders 2. Rearrest for a sex crime • Released sex offenders were more likely to be arrested for sex crimes • Only 5 % of the released sex offender committed a new sex crime • 1% of other offenders commit sex crime • Doesn’t seem overwhelming 3. Type of Sex Offender and Recidivism • Child molesters are more likely to be re-arrested for child molesting • 3% of released child molesters are re-arrested for child molesting • 2% for released other sex offenders are re-arrested for child molesting • 1% for released other offenders are re-arrested for child molesting B. Meta-Analysis of Recidivism Rates in Canada, U.S. and U.K (Harris & Hanson 2004) • 10 studies • Follow up period range from 2-23 years • Re-conviction as measure of recidivism • 14% of sex offenders committed another sex offense after 5 years • 20% -- 10 year • 24% -- 15 years • Highest risk period for reoffending is the first five years • Individuals who are involved in incest have the lowest rates of re-conviction • Individuals who target male boys have the highest rates of re-conviction • Recidivisms are low comparatively for offenders (60-75% average) C. Can We Predict Who will Be a Sex Offender or Do Sex Offenders Specia
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