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Lecture 8

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Tyler Frederick

06.03.2012 - L#8 Theories of Social Control Architecture Situational Crime Seen as a reaction against other ways of thinking about crime, Prevention Situational Crime Prevention looks at background factors of the situation - things that might pre-dispose a person to commit crime. Situational crime prevention sees nothing unique about offenders. There can be something good, or pleasurable about offending. Focus on the situation and not the background factors. 1. Prevention focused - a lot of criminological work is theoretical. 2. A focus on Rational choice - we are all rational calculators who go into situations and make rational calculations. There are things we are able to gain through crime. 3. Practice focused 4. Dissatisfied with project to change motivations 5. 3 principles: all things designed to shape the pro-con calculus. Increase Increase the effort that it takes for Effort someone to gain access to the object: put locks on it, lock it up in a public place where there are lots of people who can always see what's going on. Enhance Risk CCTV, informal surveillance (location, Detection location, location), heightened surveillance measures, etc. Reduce Make the reward, the target less valuable Value of to someone who might be interested in Reward commiting a crime to gain access to it. (e.g. - Put stickers on your bike to prevent someone from stealing it.) Routine Activities Situational crime prevention is a little more practice focused, whereas Theory Routine Activities theory is more theory based. Motivated offenders- JSM - utilitarianism. Anyone can be an offender. Background factors are not perfect. Situational predictors apply to everyone. Suitable VIVA (Visibility [How visible is it? Can it be seen? Targets Things are more likely to be stole if a target can steal it], Inertia [how portable is the object of your desire?], Value, Access [is there a barrier?]) - Is this applicable only to property crimes? Open question. 06.03.2012 - L#8 Theories of Social Control Architecture Capable anyone or anything that is able to get in the way. Guardians DTP. Natural/informal surveillance. Some locations, just by virtue of their location provide better surveillance than others. Environment context and situation - (and social trends) shapes how these things come together. Crime is more likely to happen to the extent that a motivated offender and a suitable target are brought together without a capable guardian. Limited rationality Elaborates on rational choice. Think about the role of tunnel vision. You cannot expect anything. We make decisions quickly, especially when there is little time to complete the task. One of the arguments behind routine activities is that you're on the spot and it's a split second decision that's being made. (would be critical of punishment as a method of deterrence, because people are not always thinking about punishment when they commit a crime. Sometimes they're just concentrating on upping their gains.) Broader social trends shape this relationship. CPTED Similar to situational crime prevention: Design spaces with the Crime prevention principle of natural surveillance in mind. through environmental Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) is a set design. of design principles used to discourage crime. The concept is simple: Buildings and properties are designed to prevent damage from the force of the elements and natural disasters; they should also be designed to prevent crime. CPTED principles are based on anticipating the thought processes of a potential offender, and creating an environment that discourages follow-through. CPTED has the added advantage of creating a sense of security and well-being among employees and tenants. When CPTED is put into practice, the resulting environment - including the building and its surroundings - will discourage or impede criminal behavior, and at the same time encourage honest06.03.2012 - L#8 Theories of Social Control Architecture citizens to keep a watchful eye. The Four Principles of CPTED 1. Natural Surveillance 2. Natural Access Control 3. Territorial Reinforcement 4. Maintenance 1. Natural surveillance 2. Access control - only legitimate users can gain access. 3. Territorial Reinforcement - design spaces so as to signal the public eye. By reinforcing the territory, you are able to encourage outsiders that they do not belong. 4. Maintenance - Broken windows - you need to have upkeep. Critiques CPTED - (specifically Access control, design spaces so that legitimate users can gain access.) Does this marginalize others? Who is illegitimate and who gets to define this? Based on exclusionary logic: keep people out. LA - getting rid of public washrooms and access to water fountains, and parks, etc (Idea - push the homeless people out. )
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