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Lecture #5-Policing.docx

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Tyler Frederick

Lecture #5 February 7, 2012 Policing - soul training:  established by Foucault  raises it to draw a contrast between old styles of punishment which focused on punishment of the body, with what he sees happening today which is more disciplinary  the notion of soul training is that punishment is training the soul Police vs. Policing - idea that the police are a specific type of organization, but policing is an action that can be done by people other than just the police - police: “the police is a specific, modern organization, endowed with the states legal authority to use physical coercion or the threat of it, to enforce the law in pursuance of the maintenance of social order” - jobs of the police involves a lot more than just crime-oriented tasks - actual role:  crime management (they’re not actually that effective when it comes to crime management; they’re only reactive, only get called after the crime has happened)  order management (monitoring large public spectacles, keeping order, controlling crowds)  security management (there to provide security, monitor situations to ensure nothing happens) Transition Away from Standard Policing Model - standard policing is based on assumption that generic strategies of crime reduction can be applied throughout a jurisdiction regardless of the level of the crime, the nature of the crime, or other variations - this generic approach uses random patrols (police hopping in their car and cruising around), rapid response to calls, and generally applied follow-up investigation - for most crimes those motions are pretty limited - with standard model there’s not much contact with other organizations, and it is overwhelmingly focused on law enforcement - recently, starting in the 70s we started moving away from this model, not necessarily in any one direction, but just away from it - Kansas City Preventative Patrol Experiment (1972); used different groups with different conditions to experiment  one was the control group, used a standard model  in another preventative patrol was eliminated, only reactions  in another few, preventative patrol was magnified  wanted to determine if citizens noticed (no), if it would affect crime rates (no), if it would affect fear of crime (no), would police satisfaction change (no)Lecture #5 February 7, 2012  this was used as evidence for why the standard policing model doesn’t work Community Policing - return to older style - emphasis on order management and security management - officers will go into a neighbourhood, and will personally try to interact with the public - community focus  serve the community  develop closer relations  improved public relations help with crime control - idea that if you do these things and focus on the order management it will end up helping you solve crime, thus you don’t actually have to focus on that in the first place - limitations:  doesn’t seem to be too effective, because of problems with implementation; crossing the divide can prove difficult  often problems with relationships aren’t just getting to know your local officers, there can be underlying issues because of economic boundaries - it can be seen as a move in the right direction, except for problems with implementation - TAVIS: Toronto Anti-Violence Intervention Strategy  police engage with the community, improve relationships between community and the police Zero-Tolerance - associated with New York in mid-1990s (Bratton and Giuliani) - got a lot of public attention and was highly favoured by the public - influenced by Broken Windows Theory  written by Wilson and Kelling, they saw communities suffering in these spirals of disorder  used the analogy of an abandoned building with one broken window which then makes people not care as much if another one is broken  once you let these petty crimes occurring, it will spiral out  if people see disorder in their community then they will stop taking ownership and stop investing in their community, keep to themselves, stay inside more, they lose mechanisms of informal control  advocate for foot patrols wherever possible  quality of life policing  importance of police discretion, you want police to enforce community norms - however zero tolerance has no discretion - reported significant drops in crime rateLecture #5 February 7, 2012 - 3 principles:  “nip things in the bud”, don’t way till the problem escalates  make sure control is enacted evenly, eve
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