SOC314H1 Lecture Notes - Domestic Worker, Nanay River, Characters Of Final Fantasy Xii

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28 Oct 2012
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NOT SO NUCLEAR FAMLIES
SWAPPING STACKS
- CAREFULLY REVIEW MAIN ARGUEMTS AND FINDINGS
STACKS
- qualative data. Interviews individuals living in the flats. Personal stories of how they swapped and relationships
among families
WHAT IS SWAPPING? EXPLAIN WHY THEY SWAPPED
- 33 need cooperative support to survive. They share because of urgency of needs. Alliences are created as kin and
friends exhcnage and give and obligate. Trade items. Few fam on welfare can accumulate a surplus of basic
necessities to remove themselves from poverty of the collective of kin.Without kin, fluctuation in available goods
could destroy ability to survive. Bc low skilled, cannot make good wages and produce gods. Welfare barely proides
necessaries so rely on domestic netweorks. ESSENTIAL RESOURCES FLOW FROM FAMILIES INTO KIN
NETWORKS
- 33* people in the flats borrow and trade with others to obtain daily necessities. The most important form of
distribution and exchange of the limited resources available to the poor is by means of trading, or what ppl call
swapping. As ppl swap, limited supplu of material goods is perpetually redistrubted among networks of kinmen and
throughout the community. Indv enlargen web of social relations through swapping
obligation to give
p34- me swapping is based on trade of giving/reciving. 34 Trade has an obligation of gift giving, receiving and
repaying. But the offering is essentially obligatory. In the flats, obligation to repay carries to kin and community
sanctions
- 35 degrees of entanglement among kinsmen and friends involving in networks of exchange differ in kind from
causal swapping. Ruby had a conflicting sense of obligation and sacrifice towards mom. Me: More sarcrafice for
your kin
- 38 dependancy on others
RELATION BETWEEN SWAPPING GOODS AND PERSONAL KINDREDS COMMON IN THIS
COMMUNITY?
- 40 social relations between kin trading and supporting have generocity. Unlike other studies and American
friendships is based on trust. obtaining goods takes time. Indv attempt to surpass anothers generocity. Exchange
behaviour between friends “going for kin” is identical to exchange btwn close kin
- 41 initiate a social relationship and agreed upon reciprical obligations. Reciprical obligations last as long as both
participants are satisfied. Indv remain involved in exchange relation by drawing upon credit they accumulate with
others through swapping
-its like credit. They trust you to pay them back and if you do you get more things, While waiting for exchange they
are forced to trust one another. As the need arises, reciprocity occurs.
-42 value of the obkect is a system of reciprical gift giving. Goods symbolize power, influence
- 43 reciprocity is an urgent reciprical dependency and mutal needs. Gift exchange is a style of interpersonal
relationship by which local coalitions of cooperating kinsmen distinguish from other blacks. The cooperative style
and the bonds created by the exhanges constitue black identity in the flats. The powerful obligation to exchange is
an adaptation to poverty
social network
-43 The way to involve people in their life is with exchange relationships. Through exchange transactions an indv
personally mobilizes others as participants in his social network. Those engaged in recipocial gift giving are
recruited from relatives and from friends defined as kin.
*43 process of exchange joins indviduals in personal relationships. These interpersonal links define the web of
social relations in the flats. Kinsmen share reciprocal obligations. These are essential kin. Strings of exchange
actively link participants in an indv network define that indv personal kindred.
44- kingdred are ego centered networks. ** personal kindred are not a category which people are recruited but a
selection of indv based on specific needs. In the process of exchange, people bcm emmersed in kinfolk called for
help and bring others into network
ME: KIN ARE FOR THE PUROPOSE OF NEEDS.
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WHAT ARE THESE PERSONAL KINDREDS?
- 46 belief that a kinsman is made up of a natural mother and father. At birth children aquires socially recognized
kinship relations. * who is socially recognized as kin depends on the cultural interpretations of chain of parent-child
connections
- 46* young blacks in the flats are born into personal networks including essential kin, those who actively accept
responsb and some relatives who do not create reciprical relationships
- the author says that the folk system of parental rights and duties determines who is elgible to be a member of the
ersonal kinship network of a newborn child. The system of rights is not the law. Folk is the community beliefs
Mom
- teens with a baby do not raise and nuture it. She shares the house but the baby is taken care of by her older sister,
and her mom. “not emotionally ready”
-49 the mom determines a childs kinship affiliations through females. She is the immediate sponsor of a childs
personal kin netwrik. How the socially recognized genitor determines a childs kin affiliation is described below. ***
Recocking of relatives through immediate sponsors is usfule when childs residence changes through life time. Id a
child is raised by close female relatives of his mother, the immediate sponsor of the childs personal network is the
mom. Even if a child is raised by a person not blood relative, he is still part of the network of the mom.
Fatherhood
- 50 common to have causal sex. Birth does not provide a child with a chain of socially recognized relatives through
his father. A child is elgible to participate in the personal kinship network of his father if the father becomes an
immediate sponsor of a childs kinship network.
51 when a woman is pregnant man has many options. 1) this one is exaggerated. He can deny paternity. Community
accepts the mans denial of paternity. Then he does not assume any parental duties. The child is not recognized with
the mans kin. Mother and her kinsmen belong to the child. 2) father says hes responsible. The parents do not have
to sare a house. * the more a father and his kin help a mom and child, the more completely they validate their
parental rights. American males have little or no access to steady and productive income so they cannot support their
families. Fatherhood belongs to a man if others choose to validate his chain of social recognition.
* By validating his claim as a parent the father offers the child his blood relatives and their husbands and wives as
the childs kin- as inheritence. As long as the father acknowledges his parental entitlement, his relatives consider
themselves kin to the child and therefore resp for him. If the father fails to do anything beyond merely acknowlding
the child, he surrenders most of his rights, and this claim is shared or transferred to fathers kin, whose claim is
strengthened if they actively participate as an essential kin.
- also her boyfriend, even if he isn’t the father is expected the mom and community to share some of the parental
duties of discipline, support and affection
- if a woman is unable to care for her child, nothing prevents a fathers close female relative from claiming parental
rights
*53 chain of sponsorsed parent-child connections, Particpants in active units of domestic cooperation are drawn
from personal kin networks. How a mother works to create the active network which depends on the needs of he
children depends on sponsorshp or parental links. The moms personal domestic network includes networks of her
children, who are half siblings with different fathers. Each child grows up in a diff personal network from their
siblings
* 53- moms expect little from the father, just hope that he will help out. But the do expect something from his kin,
esp his mom and sisters. ** moms continually activate these kin lines and since the biological fathers female
relatives are poor they try to expand their networks,
- Daily life is also complicated as individuals expand their own personal networks in part by recruiting friends into
their own domestic networks. When friends live up to one anothers expectations, they are identified as kin. Friends
often participate in the personal networks of others within kinship and some kin exibit the interactive patterns of
friends.
54- flats assure that children are cared for and that kin and friends in need will be helped out. Participants in
cooperative networks are primarly drawn from personal kindreds. Stable domrdtic networks of in are among the
poorest black ppl. These kinships are stable because needs are constant. Friendship on the other hand chages and
frieds drop in/out of network
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How the cast their net to create personal kinshp networks depends on the culturally determined perceptions of
parenthood: the rules and criteria for including/excluding persons connected by blood and marriage to a particular
kinsman, and the interpersonal relations between these individuals. These criteria determine which indvs acquire
socially recognized kin relations
** personal kindred of adults are ego centred networks of essetial kin. These networks are not residential units or
observable grps, and they chage participants when friends fall out.
** (fox) p55 personal kin comprise of ppl socially recognized as having reciprical responsibilities. These people
become acting and reacting participants for some focal putpose
- kids are born into an essential kin which is the primary personal kindred of kinfolk resp for them. AS kids become
adults, they expand, contract and create their own personal networks
Dropouts of kin
- geo distance, interpersonal relations or acknowledgement of paternity discourages some from responsibity
- these relatives drop out of the indvs personal kinship network, and all of the people linked through them also tend
to drop out. Thus, an imp criteria affecting size/shape of personal kinship network of adults is whether the relative
drops out of the network is geologically close or distant
- sometimes kinship links of dad are broken when they claim its not their child, not acknowledging paternity. When
a close link of a father is broken, this effects shape of personal kin. If a grandparent drops out then the indvs related
through the grandparents drop out
- ** because any relative can break a link, personal kindreds can take any number of shapes. The dropping of a
father from a network affects the shape of the network in the same way as if other more distant relatives on either
side were to drop out. But dropping a close relative is more profound
Friendship
-p57 stability of a friendship depends upon the ability of 2 indvs to guage their exploitation of one another. They
define personal relations in terms of expectations of friends and kin. When friends live up to one anothers
expectations, their social relations are conducted as kin. When friendship ends bc one indv let another down this
concludes both their expections of one another and their kin relations
- losing a fictive relative is not a dramatic thing that effects shape of personal network as lsing a close kin
- kin becomes one you can count on is a way to expand personal networks
- fictive kin relations are maintained by consensus and some can last a lifetime
- children establish close ties with autnsts and uncles and can remain in personal network for a long time
59* personal kin networls are enlarged by the inclusion of these affines who may keep the relationshop active
60- just as the aunts and uncles remain in the personal netwirks of their nieces and nephews, best friends may remain
in each others domestic network on the basis of orginal friendship even if the friendship has ended
- social relations are conducted with the idom of kinship. Members in the comm. Explain the behav of those around
them by allowing behav to define the nature of the relationshop
- friends are classified as kinsmen when they assume recognized resp of kinsmen. Those kins who cannot be counted
upon are critized.
Expectations are so elastic that if one person fails to meet anothers needs, disapponment.
61** flexible expectations and the extension of kin relationshops to non kin allow for the creation of mutual aid
domestic networks which are not bounded by distance or criteria. Much more imp for the creation and recruitment to
personal networks are the practical requirements that kin and friends live near one another
-
- Members of domestic networks in the flats are drawn from kin and friends. Of the two, the kin network is more
enduring bc all of an indv essential kin are recognized as having dutueies towards them and claims. Friendships end
and that is to be expectedl new friendship can be formed. Number of reltives who can be called upon for help from
personal kinship network have contining claims on one another. Dome observers of dailu life in blsck comm. Regard
the friendshop netwoek as the proven and adaptive base of operation in lower class life. But the adaptive
base of operations of the poorest black ppl can be attributed to the personal kindred as well as to networks
of friends.
WHAT IS THE IMPORTANT FAMILY UNIT IN THIS KINDRED?
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