Class Notes (839,147)
Canada (511,218)
Sociology (3,264)
SOC314H1 (8)

Nuclear families

10 Pages

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Bonnie Fox

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NOT SO NUCLEAR FAMLIES SWAPPING STACKS - CAREFULLY REVIEW MAIN ARGUEMTS AND FINDINGS STACKS - qualative data. Interviews individuals living in the flats. Personal stories of how they swapped and relationships among families WHAT IS SWAPPING? EXPLAIN WHY THEY SWAPPED - 33 need cooperative support to survive. They share because of urgency of needs. Alliences are created as kin and friends exhcnage and give and obligate. Trade items. Few fam on welfare can accumulate a surplus of basic necessities to remove themselves from poverty of the collective of kin.Without kin, fluctuation in available goods could destroy ability to survive. Bc low skilled, cannot make good wages and produce gods. Welfare barely proides necessaries so rely on domestic netweorks. ESSENTIAL RESOURCES FLOW FROM FAMILIES INTO KIN NETWORKS - 33* people in the flats borrow and trade with others to obtain daily necessities. The most important form of distribution and exchange of the limited resources available to the poor is by means of trading, or what ppl call swapping. As ppl swap, limited supplu of material goods is perpetually redistrubted among networks of kinmen and throughout the community. Indv enlargen web of social relations through swapping obligation to give p34- me swapping is based on trade of giving/reciving. 34 Trade has an obligation of gift giving, receiving and repaying. But the offering is essentially obligatory. In the flats, obligation to repay carries to kin and community sanctions - 35 degrees of entanglement among kinsmen and friends involving in networks of exchange differ in kind from causal swapping. Ruby had a conflicting sense of obligation and sacrifice towards mom. Me: More sarcrafice for your kin - 38 dependancy on others RELATION BETWEEN SWAPPING GOODS AND PERSONAL KINDREDS COMMON IN THIS COMMUNITY? - 40 social relations between kin trading and supporting have generocity. Unlike other studies and American friendships is based on trust. obtaining goods takes time. Indv attempt to surpass anothers generocity. Exchange behaviour between friends going for kin is identical to exchange btwn close kin - 41 initiate a social relationship and agreed upon reciprical obligations. Reciprical obligations last as long as both participants are satisfied. Indv remain involved in exchange relation by drawing upon credit they accumulate with others through swapping -its like credit. They trust you to pay them back and if you do you get more things, While waiting for exchange they are forced to trust one another. As the need arises, reciprocity occurs. -42 value of the obkect is a system of reciprical gift giving. Goods symbolize power, influence - 43 reciprocity is an urgent reciprical dependency and mutal needs. Gift exchange is a style of interpersonal relationship by which local coalitions of cooperating kinsmen distinguish from other blacks. The cooperative style and the bonds created by the exhanges constitue black identity in the flats. The powerful obligation to exchange is an adaptation to poverty social network -43 The way to involve people in their life is with exchange relationships. Through exchange transactions an indv personally mobilizes others as participants in his social network. Those engaged in recipocial gift giving are recruited from relatives and from friends defined as kin. *43 process of exchange joins indviduals in personal relationships. These interpersonal links define the web of social relations in the flats. Kinsmen share reciprocal obligations. These are essential kin. Strings of exchange actively link participants in an indv network define that indv personal kindred. 44- kingdred are ego centered networks. ** personal kindred are not a category which people are recruited but a selection of indv based on specific needs. In the process of exchange, people bcm emmersed in kinfolk called for help and bring others into network ME: KIN ARE FOR THE PUROPOSE OF NEEDS. WHAT ARE THESE PERSONAL KINDREDS? - 46 belief that a kinsman is made up of a natural mother and father. At birth children aquires socially recognized kinship relations. * who is socially recognized as kin depends on the cultural interpretations of chain of parent-child connections - 46* young blacks in the flats are born into personal networks including essential kin, those who actively accept responsb and some relatives who do not create reciprical relationships - the author says that the folk system of parental rights and duties determines who is elgible to be a member of the ersonal kinship network of a newborn child. The system of rights is not the law. Folk is the community beliefs Mom - teens with a baby do not raise and nuture it. She shares the house but the baby is taken care of by her older sister, and her mom. not emotionally ready -49 the mom determines a childs kinship affiliations through females. She is the immediate sponsor of a childs personal kin netwrik. How the socially recognized genitor determines a childs kin affiliation is described below. *** Recocking of relatives through immediate sponsors is usfule when childs residence changes through life time. Id a child is raised by close female relatives of his mother, the immediate sponsor of the childs personal network is the mom. Even if a child is raised by a person not blood relative, he is still part of the network of the mom. Fatherhood - 50 common to have causal sex. Birth does not provide a child with a chain of socially recognized relatives through his father. A child is elgible to participate in the personal kinship network of his father if the father becomes an immediate sponsor of a childs kinship network. 51 when a woman is pregnant man has many options. 1) this one is exaggerated. He can deny paternity. Community accepts the mans denial of paternity. Then he does not assume any parental duties. The child is not recognized with the mans kin. Mother and her kinsmen belong to the child. 2) father says hes responsible. The parents do not have to sare a house. * the more a father and his kin help a mom and child, the more completely they validate their parental rights. American males have little or no access to steady and productive income so they cannot support their families. Fatherhood belongs to a man if others choose to validate his chain of social recognition. * By validating his claim as a parent the father offers the child his blood relatives and their husbands and wives as the childs kin- as inheritence. As long as the father acknowledges his parental entitlement, his relatives consider themselves kin to the child and therefore resp for him. If the father fails to do anything beyond merely acknowlding the child, he surrenders most of his rights, and this claim is shared or transferred to fathers kin, whose claim is strengthened if they actively participate as an essential kin. - also her boyfriend, even if he isnt the father is expected the mom and community to share some of the parental duties of discipline, support and affection - if a woman is unable to care for her child, nothing prevents a fathers close female relative from claiming parental rights *53 chain of sponsorsed parent-child connections, Particpants in active units of domestic cooperation are drawn from personal kin networks. How a mother works to create the active network which depends on the needs of he children depends on sponsorshp or parental links. The moms personal domestic network includes networks of her children, who are half siblings with different fathers. Each child grows up in a diff personal network from their siblings * 53- moms expect little from the father, just hope that he will help out. But the do expect something from his kin, esp his mom and sisters. ** moms continually activate these kin lines and since the biological fathers female relatives are poor they try to expand their networks, - Daily life is also complicated as individuals expand their own personal networks in part by recruiting friends into their own domestic networks. When friends live up to one anothers expectations, they are identified as kin. Friends often participate in the personal networks of others within kinship and some kin exibit the interactive patterns of friends. 54- flats assure that children are cared for and that kin and friends in need will be helped out. Participants in cooperative networks are primarly drawn from personal kindreds. Stable domrdtic networks of in are among the poorest black ppl. These kinships are stable because needs are constant. Friendship on the other hand chages and frieds drop in/out of networkHow the cast their net to create personal kinshp networks depends on the culturally determined perceptions of parenthood: the rules and criteria for including/excluding persons connected by blood and marriage to a particular kinsman, and the interpersonal relations between these individuals. These criteria determine which indvs acquire socially recognized kin relations ** personal kindred of adults are ego centred networks of essetial kin. These networks are not residential units or observable grps, and they chage participants when friends fall out. ** (fox) p55 personal kin comprise of ppl socially recognized as having reciprical responsibilities. These people become acting and reacting participants for some focal putpose - kids are born into an essential kin which is the primary personal kindred of kinfolk resp for them. AS kids become adults, they expand, contract and create their own personal networks Dropouts of kin - geo distance, interpersonal relations or acknowledgement of paternity discourages some from responsibity - these relatives drop out of the indvs personal kinship network, and all of the people linked through them also tend to drop out. Thus, an imp criteria affecting size/shape of personal kinship network of adults is whether the relative drops out of the network is geologically close or di
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