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Lecture 6

SOC336 Week 7, Lecture 6.docx

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Lecture 7: Immigration and the State Outline: 1. Immigration policy of receiving states (Massey 1999) Contemporary examples of immigrant restrictions The “efficacy” of restriction Talks about the state policies influence or create certain trends in migration There is a lot of overlap between outcomes and causes of migration 2. The social dynamics of the migratory process (Castles 2004) Bottom-up initiatives: grassroots organizations and immigrant agency Nobody is Illegal; Drop the I-Word Campaign; California Dream Act Toronto declared “Sanctuary City” 3. Policy of sending states: the impact of transnantionalism on the migratory process (Levitt & de la Dehesa 2003) Transnational ties help newcomers integrate them into their host country 4. Towards fairer and more effective immigration policies (Castles 2004)  To what extent does ‘race’ continue to play a role in (Canadian) immigration - policy? -Process of racialization  the process by which certain categories based on phenotype or physical appearance are made salient. And how resources are distributed based on these categories -Going to focus on the outcomes of migration as opposed to causes of migration because grassroots organizations are more likely than governments to focus on the reality of the situation -Aslyum seekers are going to continue to cross borders (regardless of government regulations) and these grassroots organizations can focus on those needs -Influence of state policies encouraging/discouraging immigrants -The experience of settling in a country Immigration Policy (receiving state) – Massey 1999  What is immigration policy?  “… the outcome of a political process through which competing interests interact within bureaucratic, legislative, judicial, and public arenas to construct and implement policies that encourage, discourage, or otherwise regulate the flow of immigrants” (307)  What influences shifts in immigration policy?  Political environment, national economy, unemployment rates, relative wages… (in receiving country)  Look at policies in sending and both receiving countries  Objective: to show the role of state regulations in shaping policies  Many sending countries have special government sponsored programs that encourage emigration  Go abroad, work, and send money back home Supra-national influences on receiving state immigration policy (Massey 1999)   Global economy  Generates structural changes  Limits the control of labor and capital  Unleashes socioeconomic factors that  intl migration  International migration does not stem from lack of economic development but from development itself  Universal human rights regime  Constitutions of liberal democracies are based on this (universal human rights)  Protection of human rights constrains the ability of democratic states is restricted (can’t address people’s claims on ethnicity/race)  Protects immigrant rights while subduing anti-immig rhetoric from mainstream population  Both of these factors – global markets & intl rights – tend to undermine the restrictive policies that many North American & European govts implement in order to keep migrants out… However… Harsh restrictions persist  California, 1994: Proposition 187/“Save Our State” (SOS) Amendment  Prevents undocumented migrants from getting health care and other social services (access to public education)  First time a state passed a proposition like this since it’s usually federal  Major target group was the Hispanic population  Arizona, 2010: Immigration Law SB1070 o Made it a crime to be present in state without legal status  police can ask you if you’re a citizen or have status here o Immigration laws were always presented at a federal level but then became a matter in the hands of state  Alabama, 2011: Immigration Law HB 56 o Toughest immigration law in country o Measure requires public schools to determine citizenship of students; gives schools access to birth certificates and police have right to detain someone who does not have a legal status o Other states have been adopting anti illegal immigrants Canada is no exception…  Canada, 16 Feb 2012: Protecting Canada’s Immigration System Act (Bill C-31) o Refer to Lecture 2 for details  Canada, 1 July 2012: Healthcare Cuts for Refugees  “Too many tax dollars are spent on bogus refugees. We need to send a message to those who would abuse Canada’s generous asylum system that if you are not in need of protection, you will be sent home quickly” (Jason Kenny)  The language that Kenny uses ties up in a disturbing way of Castles argument of the so-called migration crisis. The notion that here and the global North, we tend to think of waves of immigrants and refugees and think of them as pushing at the borders and trying to take advantage of our generous health care. In terms of numbers though, Castles says is not a crisis. The real crisis is other countreis of global south (ie. Pakistan) which is next to other countries who are in a real crisis. The ‘efficacy’ of restriction “While the global economy unleashes powerful forces that produce larger and more diverse flows of migrants from developing to developed countries, it simultaneously creates conditions within developed countries that promote the implementation of restrictive immigration policies” (Massey 1999: 312)  Are restrictive policies effective???  Castles  ‘Observers of international migration are often struck by the failure of states to effectively manage migration and its effects on society. In particular, undocumented migration keeps growing despite efforts by states and supra-national bodies  So.. No.  Entry restrictions just makes people find more inhumane ways to cross the borders  People who need to flee their countries, will flee their countries whether or not they’re allowed to  What (unintended) consequences do they have???  Often leads to spread of fear in immigrant co
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