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Lecture 2

SOC336 Lecture 2 – Theories of Immigration.pdf

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Lecture  2  –  Theories  of  Immigration  &  History  of  Canadian  Immigration  Policy       Why  do  people  move?     • Economic  reasons  (i.e.  labour  migration)   o Motivation  for  governments  in  countries  of  reception  (e.g.  developed   countries):  fill  labour  shortages,  make  up  for  low  birth  rates   o Motivation  for  potential  migrants  in  source  countries  (e.g.  developing   countries):  improved  economic  and  social  opportunities     à  International  migration  is  a  response  to  the  growing  economic  gap  between  the  global   North  (developed  world)  and  South  (developing  world)     • Globalization  –  means  people  in  the  developing  world  in  global  south  are   increasingly  exposed  to  a  large  range  of  goods  –  cellphones,  cars,  clothes,  tvs   • But  for  people  in  global  south,  rarely  are  they  in  a  position  to  buy  or  acquire  these   goods  as  easily  as  people  in  the  north     • Migration  to  developed  world  is  often  seen  as  a  way  of  participating  in  modern   consumption  and  bettering  life  chances   • At  the  same  time,  the  developed  world  (global  north)  requires  a  larger  work  force   in  order  to  perform  the  harsh  and  low  paid  menial  work  for  which  there  are  usually   not  enough  citizens  –  usually  because  of  low  birth  rates  or  because  citizens  don’t   want  to  do  these  jobs   • Many  national  governments  rely  on  major  labour  improvement  policies  in  order  to   increase  and  strengthen  their  labour  force   • Demands  for  certain  kinds  of  a  labour  force  change  over  time  depending  on  which   industry  has  a  hole  in  it,  or  which  industry  is  relevant  in  a  particular  time  period   • Wars  or  other  forms  of  political  turmoil,  economic  recessions  or  economic  booms   will  also  influence  what  their  country  needs  to  replenish  its  work  force  in  a   particular  time  period   • In  trying  to  answer  the  question  of  “why  people  move”,  we  have  to  consider  both   nations  that  are  developed  and  their  source  countries  (countries  of  origin)  and  the   conservative  efforts  by  the  governments  in  countries  of  reception  in  order  to  make   their  countries  seem  more  attractive  and  appealing  to  people  who  are  looking  to   move  elsewhere   • Push  and  pull  factors  –  push  is  what  pushes  you  out  of  your  country  of  origin  and   pull  is  what  is  pulling  you  into  the  new  country   • Push  factors  can  be  low  living  standards,  poor  economic  opportunities,  political   turmoil  or  overpopulation   • Pull  factors  can  be  labour  recruitment  programs,  availability  of  land,  political   freedom  and  good  economic  prospects  in  country  of  reception     “Greener  Grass”  –  The  Economist,  17.12.09     Who  wants  to  leave  and  where  they  (hope  to)  go     • Approx  16%  of  world’s  population  wants  to  emigrate   o Most  from  countries  experiencing  political,  social  or  economic  turmoil   • Destinations  of  choice:   o Europe,  USA,  Canada,  Singapore   • Asia’s  cultural  factors  of  migration     • Over  1/3  of  Africans  want  to  go  abroad,  especially  those  in  countries  experiencing   economic  and  political  turmoil   • Residents  of  Latin  America  and  Caribbean  countries  are  also  looking  for  improved   life  chances   • The  desire  to  migrate  is  heavily  influenced  by  gap  between  opportunities  in   developed  world  and  lack  of  opportunities  in  the  developing  world   • Many  people  would  be  migrating  if  resources  were  available   • Findings  show  that  residents  of  Asian  countries  seem  less  interested  in  moving   even  when  there  are  greater  economic  opportunities  in  the  west     • Suggests  there  are  cultural  facets  –  difficulty  with  leaving  behind  tight-­‐knit  families   • Shows  it’s  not  just  economics  but  cultural  or  political  factors  too     Why  do  people  move?     • Political  reasons,  such  as  persecution,  political  turmoil  and  violent  conflicts,   ideological  conflict  with  home  country  regime  (i.e.  forced  migration,  asylum   seeking)   • Escape  environmental  or  other  forms  of  catastrophe  (i.e.  asylum  seeking)   • Family  reunification  and/or  “chain  migration”   • Investment/business  opportunities  (entrepreneurs)   • …   à  Influence  of  sending  and  receiving  countries   à  Immigration  is  a  multi-­‐causal  phenomenon  that  requires  an   interdisciplinary  approach  in  order  to  make  sense  of  it     • Migration  cannot  just  be  explained  as  income  differences  between  developing  and   developed  countries   • Migration  is  a  multi-­‐causal  phenomenon  –  have  to  consider  factors  other  than   economic  ones  to  explain  why  people  end  up  moving  from  one  country  to  another  –   such  as  social  and  political   • We  also  have  to  take  into  account  how  migration  is  influenced  by  decisions  and   phenomenon  taking  place  in  the  receiving  end       Units  of  analysis  =  the  “who”  &  “what”  of  (immigration)  research     • Micro  (think:  SMALL!)   o The  networks,  practices  and  beliefs  of  the  migrants  themselves   § E.g.  Informal  social  networks,  cultural  capital,  social  capital   • Macro  (think:  BIG!)   o Large  scale  institutional  structures       § E.g.  Laws,  interstate  relationships,  state  policies,  market  forces   • Meso  (think:  MEDIUM!)   o Intermediate  mechanisms  that  act  as  “referees”  btwn  the  migrant  (micro)   and  political  or  economic  institutions  (macro)     § E.g.  ‘migration  industry’  made  up  of  recruitment  organisations,   lawyers,  smugglers,  settlement  agencies…     • Units  of  analysis  =  the  object  –  the  who  or  the  what  in  research   • Micro  à  interviews  or  participant  observation  –basic  questions  asked   • Unit  of  analysis  is  also  going  to  determine  the  methods  used   • Cultural  capital  =  information  and  knowledge  of  other  countries,  capabilities  for   organizing  travel,  finding  work  and  adapting  to  a  new  environment   • Social  capital  =  personal  relationships,  family  and  household  patterns,  friendship   and  community  ties,  mutual  help  and  economic  and  social  matters   • Interstate  relationships    =  such  as  relationship  between  states  and  Canada,  how   does  that  determine  how  easy  it  is  for  someone  to  move  from  one  country  to   another   • Settlement  agencies  –  such  as  organizations  that  might  offer  English  classes  to   immigrants     • The  way  research  is  done  and  conducted  change  or  are  determined  based  on  what   unit  of  analysis  the  researcher  is  wanting  to  use     Castles  and  Miller  (2009)  Ch.  2     Economic  theories  of  migration   • Neoclassical  theory   • Dual  or  segmented  labour  market  theory   • New  economics  of  labour  migration  theory         à  OVERARCHING  PROBLEMS:  focus  is  limited  to  individuals  as  rational  economic  actors;   ignores  historical  and  political  contexts     Dependency  theories  of  migration   • Historical-­‐structural  approach   • World  Systems  Theory     à  OVERARCHING  PROBLEMS:  Still  too  much  emphasis  on  economics…  ignores   human  agency/  individual  motivations  and  actions     • All  economic  theories  of  migration  theories  have  in  common  =  based  on  assumption   that  the  potential  immigrant  is  a  rational  actor  which  means  someone  who  is  fully   informed  of  economic  conditions  and  other  aspects  of  the  country  of  immigration   • Also  that  migration  is  caused  by  supply  and  demand  in  labour  market  which  means   thee  labour  market  is  what  influences  people  decision  to  immigrate  and  what   would  influence  the  government  to  open  up  or  close  its  borders  to  people  trying  to   come  in   • Both  assumptions  of  economic  theories  are  false  –  they  give  us  broad   understanding  of  why  people  migrate  and  what  happens  to  them  once  they  arrive   in  their  new  countries  except  for  the  new  economics  of  labour  migration  theory   which  does  consider  the  motivation  of  family  or  communities     • First  two  theories  only  focus  on  individuals  and  the  assumptions  that  all  migrants   have  all  the  necessary  information  at  their  disposal  prior  to  coming   • All  3  theories  ignore  the  political  context  such  as  immigration  policy  and  historical   traits  of  the  settlement   • If  we  focus  on  economic  causes  alone  we  would  miss  out  on  larger  picture  and  the   explanation  as  to  why  people  move     • Historical  structural  approaches  are  also  lacking  –  they  place  too  much  emphasis  on   economic  and  social  structures  –  similar  to  economic  theories,  they  also  consider   capital  and  economics  to  be  main  determinant  of  migration     • These  theories  consider  only  macro  level  of  determinants  –  like  mass  labour   improvement  policies  and  the  world  market  economy   • As  a  result  these  theories  ignore  human  agencies  and  actions  of  individuals       Interdisciplinary  approaches     • Migration  systems  theory  (geography)   o Focus  is  on  sending  and  receiving  countries,  and  how  they  are  joined   together  as  migrants  move  from  one  to  the  other     o Migration  is  explained  as  result  of  interaction  between  micro-­‐,  meso-­‐  and   macro-­‐  level  structures     • Migration  networks  theory  (sociology  &  anthropology)   o Unit  of  analysis:  family  or  community     o Networks  as  both  trigger  of  migration,  and  advantage  in  the  process  of   settlement   § Cumulative  causation  =  when  migration  patterns  take  on  a  life  of   their  own  and  become  self-­‐sustaining     • Transnational  approaches  (more  on  this  next  week!)   o Transnationalism  =  “the  process  by  which  immigrants  forge  and  sustain   multi-­‐stranded  social  relations  that  link  their  societies  of  origin  and  [their   societies  of]  settlement”  (Basch,  Glick-­‐Schiller  &  Blanc-­‐Szanton  1994:6).     o Focus  is  on  the  sustained  ties  that  migrants  maintain  with  their  countries  of   origin  (e.g.  economic,  political,  cultural  and  religious  activities  that  keep  the   migrant  connected  to  his/her  country  of  origin)     • Migration  systems  theories  come  from  geography  –  pays  attention  to  interaction   between  receiving  and  sending  countries   • This  theory  looks  at  systems  of  migration  –  ex:  history  of  colonization  might  create   a  migration  system  between  the  colonizing  country  and  the  country  that  is  being   colonized     • Ex:  immigrant  group  of  France  –  a  lot  of  north  African  people  living  there    -­‐  all   countries  that  up  till  the  60s  were  under  control  of  French  colonizers  since  17   century   • France  was  obvious  country  of  destination  for  people  who  wanted  to  leave  –   because  of  language  skills,  and  exposure  to  French  culture  because  of  colonization   • Same  reason  why  Britain  has  huge  population  of  Indian  and  Pakistani  immigrants   • Countries  of  reception  and  countries  of  origin  are  linked  because  of  certain   historical  and  political  reasons   • Migration  system  theory  explains  that  migration  occurs  because  of  interaction   between  Macro  Meso  and  Micro  level  structures  since  it  focuses  on  the  immigrants   themselves  (micro)  as  well  as  on  the  macro  level  structures  like  the  historical  and   political  relationship  between  states     • Then  you  also  have  Meso  structures,  like  the  recruitment  agencies  that  might  be  set   up  by  the  government  in  the  receiving  country  and  sending  country  in  order  to   inform  the  migrants  of  immigration     • All  3  levels  can  be  at  play  for  just  one  person       • Migration  networks  theory  –  looks  at  phenomenon  of  chain  migration  =  sending   and  receiving  countries  are  part  of  the  analysis,  the  concept  of  migration  is  the   network  since  they  work  both  as  a  cause  and  a  trigger  of  migration  and  as  an   advantage  of  the  process  of  resettling     • As  a  trigger  of  migration,  the  decision  to  migrate  especially  in  Asian  communities  is   usually  made  by  family  rather  than  an  individual.  In  many  situations  one  of  the   family  members  will  migrate  first  and  only  later  will  their  family  follow.  However  it   doesn’t  stop  with  one  family,  it  may  be  followed  by  another   • We  can  talk  about  migration  as  a  process  that  involves  the  whole  community,   rather  than  just  an  individual  or  even  just  one  family   • Potential  migrants  will  be  more  inclined  to  emigrate  in  a  place  where  they  already   have  some  contacts  or  some  sort  of  community  established  –  they’ll  know  where  to   get  a  job,  send  their  kids  to  school,  etc   • As  more  and  more  people  start  to  come  from  a  particular  area,  the  new  area  is   fundamentally  changed   • Important  to  think  of  it  as  a  cause  and  trigger  of  migration  and  advantage  once   immigrants  land  –  why  it  would  be  favourable  for  them  to  go  somewhere  where   they  already  know  someone     • Transnational  approaches  =  because  of  major  developments  in  communications  and   transport  technology,  it  has  become  easier  to  maintain  ties  between  countries   • Someone  who  immigrated  from  Hong  Kong  to  Vancouver  50  years  ago  compared  to   someone  from  today  –  it’s  easier  to  stay  in  touch  with  back  home  and  easy  to  fly   back   • Process  of  migrating  doesn’t  necessarily  mean  that  you’re  leaving  your  country   behind  forever  –  many  ways  to  stay  connected   • Transnational  approaches  also  pay  attention  to  specific  networks  and  ties  that  are   created  between  old  country  and  new  country  as  a  result  of  these  technological   changes     • Also  relevant  with  governments  sending  and  receiving  people       Summary     The  economic  theories  of  migration  try  to  answer  these  questions  -­‐  while  all  of  these   theories  give  us  some  insight  as  to  the  causes  of  migration,  they  generally  ignore  the  role   of  the  individual,  that  is  the  micro  aspect  of  the  process  of  migration   It  is  for  this  reason  that  interdisciplinary  theories  of  migration  are  more  helpful  for  us  as   we  try  to  understand  the  multicausal  phenomenon  of  migration     By  focusing  on  the  importance  of  migration  network  systems,  these  theories  also   emphasize  Macro  Micro  and  Meso  levels  and  as  a  result  the  importance  of  bringing   together  perspectives  from  different  disciplines  of  the  multifaceted  and  complex   phenomenon  of  immigration       Migration  Theory:  Talking  Across  Disciplines     Bretell  &  Hollifield  (2000)     Who  studies  migration  &  how?   • Sociology   • History   • Economics   • Political  science   • Anthropology   • Demography   • Law     à  Consider  how  each  discipline  asks  unique  questions,  has/uses  different  research   objectives,  theoretical  frameworks,  research  objectives,  and  units  of  analysis       • Political  science  encourages  us  to  look  at  state  policies  and  governments  or   immigrant  integration     • It’s  important  to  identify  which  disciplines  are  concerned  with  international   migration  (written  above)   • Demography  =  study  of  populations   • Most  important  differences  between  these  disciplines  when  talking  about  study  of   immigration  has  to  do  with:  research  questions  that  are  asked,  different  disciplines   are  going  to  have  different  research  questions,  different  theoretical  frameworks   and  different  conceptual  tools  for  why  something  happens  as  opposed  to  something   else  –  units  of  analysis  are  going  to  differ  but  there’s  also  overlap;  also  different   methodologies   • Know  chart*       History  of  Canadian  Immigration       Intro/Background  (pre-­‐Confederation)   • First  immigrants  are  the  First  Nations  People   • In  Canada,  modern  period  of  immigration  begins  with:     o British  &  French  colonization  in  17  &  18  C.     o Onset  of  the  Industrial  Revolution  in  England,  around  1850   § Increasing  population  in  Europe  led  many  to  seek  out  better   opportunities  in  the  New  World   § Confederation:  in  1867  Canada  gains  independence  from  Britain   • Throughout  all  phases  of  immigration  history,  government  uses  migration  as   a  way  of  promoting  economic  growth  (e.g.  responding  to  labour  shortages)   and  population  growth;  migration  is  also  used  as  a  tool  of  nation-­‐building       • Three  major  events  that  have  shaped  the  landscape  of  immigration  today  –   industrialization  and  colonialism,  fall  of  empire  system  and  rise  of  nation  state     • All  of  these  three  events  are  complex  phenomenon  -­‐  each  of  these  events   represents  large  scale  political,  economic,  social  and  cultural  and  other  kinds  of   elements   • The  very  foundations  of  international  migration  require  an  interdisciplinary   approach  of  study     • If  we  want  to  understand  why  people  emigrate,  and  why  countries  allow  foreigners   into  their  borders,  we  have  to  look  at  a  variety  of  factors  –  history,  sociology,   politics,  economics,  law   • Looking  at  history  of  immigration  in  Canada,  we  should  be  able  to  start  putting   things  into  context,  and  set  some  examples  of  how  the  decision  to  move  is   influenced  by  many  things  –  such  as  individual  choice  and  things  going  on  in  the   country  of  origin,  as  well  as  government  policies  in  country  of  reception       • Purpose  of  reviewing  the  history  of  immigration  to  Canada  is  to  highlight  the  main   themes  we  are  talking  about  today  –  reasons  for  migrating,  why  people  move  and   the  importance  of  using  a  broad  range  of  theories  and  perspectives  in  order  to  start   answering  that  question     • Another  is  racism  and  the  ways  in  which  government  privileges  –  process  that  has   historically  been  based  on  categorizing  people  based  on  features,  such  as  race  and   making  assumptions  about  their  natural  ability  or  efficiencies  based  on  race   • Resources  such  as  citizenship  is  then  allocated  based  on  these  assumptions  of   somebody’s  so  called  race   • First  immigrants  to  Canada  are  the  first  nations  people,  the  modern  period  of   immigration  begins  with  the  arrival  of  the  British  and  French  settles  in  18  century   • The  Europeans  colonized  and  people  that  were  colonized  were  treated  inhumanely,   by  pushing  aside  and  marginalizing  the  indigenous  that  were  already  here,  this   continues  to  be  a  theme  to  day  in  this  country   • One  of  the  major  outcomes  of  European  migration  to  Canada  was  the  devastation  it   caused  and  continues  to  cause  for  first  nations  people       • Canada’s  history  is  also  connected  to  the  industrial  revolution,  industrial  revolution   increased  populations  around  Europe,  particularly  Britain,  which  pushed  many   people  to  seek  out  better  opportunities  in  the  world  –  such  as  Canada  and  the  states       • This  was  followed  soon  after  confederation,  when  Canada  gained  independence   from  British  empire  in  1867   • The  establishment  of  Canada  as  a  nation  state  represents  a  compromised  union  of   two  immigrant  societies  made  up  of  British  and  French  settlers  and  their   descendants,  and  their  langua
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