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Lecture 2

SOC336H1 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Immigration Policy, Chain Migration, Immigration


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC336H1
Professor
Blumer
Lecture
2

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Lecture'2'–'Theories'of'Immigration'&'History'of'Canadian'Immigration'Policy'
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Why'do'people'move?'
!
Economic'reasons'(i.e.'labour'migration)'
o Motivation'for'governments'in'countries'of'reception'(e.g.'developed'
countries):'fill'labour'shortages,'make'up'for'low'birth'rates'
o Motivation'for'potential'migrants'in'source'countries'(e.g.'developing'
countries):'improved'economic'and'social'opportunities'
'
!'International'migration'is'a'response'to'the'growing'economic'gap'between'the'global'
North'(developed'world)'and'South'(developing'world)'
'
Globalization'–'means'people'in'the'developing'world'in'global'south'are'
increasingly'exposed'to'a'large'range'of'goods'–'cellphones,'cars,'clothes,'tvs'
But'for'people'in'global'south,'rarely'are'they'in'a'position'to'buy'or'acquire'these'
goods'as'easily'as'people'in'the'north''
Migration'to'developed'world'is'often'seen'as'a'way'of'participating'in'modern'
consumption'and'bettering'life'chances'
At'the'same'time,'the'developed'world'(global'north)'requires'a'larger'work'force'
in'order'to'perform'the'harsh'and'low'paid'menial'work'for'which'there'are'usually'
not'enough'citizens'–'usually'because'of'low'birth'rates'or'because'citizens'don’t'
want'to'do'these'jobs'
Many'national'governments'rely'on'major'labour'improvement'policies'in'order'to'
increase'and'strengthen'their'labour'force'
Demands'for'certain'kinds'of'a'labour'force'change'over'time'depending'on'which'
industry'has'a'hole'in'it,'or'which'industry'is'relevant'in'a'particular'time'period'
Wars'or'other'forms'of'political'turmoil,'economic'recessions'or'economic'booms'
will'also'influence'what'their'country'needs'to'replenish'its'work'force'in'a'
particular'time'period'
In'trying'to'answer'the'question'of'“why'people'move”,'we'have'to'consider'both'
nations'that'are'developed'and'their'source'countries'(countries'of'origin)'and'the'
conservative'efforts'by'the'governments'in'countries'of'reception'in'order'to'make'
their'countries'seem'more'attractive'and'appealing'to'people'who'are'looking'to'
move'elsewhere'
Push'and'pull'factors'–'push'is'what'pushes'you'out'of'your'country'of'origin'and'
pull'is'what'is'pulling'you'into'the'new'country'
Push'factors'can'be'low'living'standards,'poor'economic'opportunities,'political'
turmoil'or'overpopulation'
Pull'factors'can'be'labour'recruitment'programs,'availability'of'land,'political'
freedom'and'good'economic'prospects'in'country'of'reception'
'
“Greener'Grass”'–'The'Economist,'17.12.09''
Who'wants'to'leave'and'where'they'(hope'to)'go'

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Approx'16%'of'world’s'population'wants'to'emigrate'
o Most'from'countries'experiencing'political,'social'or'economic'turmoil'
Destinations'of'choice:'
o Europe,'USA,'Canada,'Singapore'
Asia’s'cultural'factors'of'migration'
'
Over'1/3'of'Africans'want'to'go'abroad,'especially'those'in'countries'experiencing'
economic'and'political'turmoil'
Residents'of'Latin'America'and'Caribbean'countries'are'also'looking'for'improved'
life'chances'
The'desire'to'migrate'is'heavily'influenced'by'gap'between'opportunities'in'
developed'world'and'lack'of'opportunities'in'the'developing'world'
Many'people'would'be'migrating'if'resources'were'available'
Findings'show'that'residents'of'Asian'countries'seem'less'interested'in'moving'
even'when'there'are'greater'economic'opportunities'in'the'west''
Suggests'there'are'cultural'facets'–'difficulty'with'leaving'behind'tight[knit'families'
Shows'it’s'not'just'economics'but'cultural'or'political'factors'too'
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Why'do'people'move?'
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Political'reasons,'such'as'persecution,'political'turmoil'and'violent'conflicts,'
ideological'conflict'with'home'country'regime'(i.e.'forced'migration,'asylum'
seeking)'
Escape'environmental'or'other'forms'of'catastrophe'(i.e.'asylum'seeking)'
Family'reunification'and/or'“chain'migration”'
Investment/business'opportunities'(entrepreneurs)'
…'
!'Influence'of'sending'and'receiving'countries'
!'Immigration'is'a'multi[causal'phenomenon'that'requires'an'
interdisciplinary'approach'in'order'to'make'sense'of'it!
'
Migration'cannot'just'be'explained'as'income'differences'between'developing'and'
developed'countries'
Migration'is'a'multi[causal'phenomenon'–'have'to'consider'factors'other'than'
economic'ones'to'explain'why'people'end'up'moving'from'one'country'to'another'–'
such'as'social'and'political'
We'also'have'to'take'into'account'how'migration'is'influenced'by'decisions'and'
phenomenon'taking'place'in'the'receiving'end''
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Units'of'analysis'='the'“who”'&'“what”'of'(immigration)'research'
'
Micro'(think:'SMALL!)'
o The'networks,'practices'and'beliefs'of'the'migrants'themselves'
" E.g.'Informal'social'networks,'cultural'capital,'social'capital'

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Macro'(think:'BIG!)'
o Large'scale'institutional'structures'' '
" E.g.'Laws,'interstate'relationships,'state'policies,'market'forces'
Meso'(think:'MEDIUM!)'
o Intermediate'mechanisms'that'act'as'“referees”'btwn'the'migrant'(micro)'
and'political'or'economic'institutions'(macro)''
" E.g.'‘migration'industry’'made'up'of'recruitment'organisations,'
lawyers,'smugglers,'settlement'agencies…'
'
Units'of'analysis'='the'object'–'the'who'or'the'what'in'research'
Micro'!'interviews'or'participant'observation'basic'questions'asked'
Unit'of'analysis'is'also'going'to'determine'the'methods'used'
Cultural'capital'='information'and'knowledge'of'other'countries,'capabilities'for'
organizing'travel,'finding'work'and'adapting'to'a'new'environment'
Social'capital'='personal'relationships,'family'and'household'patterns,'friendship'
and'community'ties,'mutual'help'and'economic'and'social'matters'
Interstate'relationships''='such'as'relationship'between'states'and'Canada,'how'
does'that'determine'how'easy'it'is'for'someone'to'move'from'one'country'to'
another'
Settlement'agencies'–'such'as'organizations'that'might'offer'English'classes'to'
immigrants''
The'way'research'is'done'and'conducted'change'or'are'determined'based'on'what'
unit'of'analysis'the'researcher'is'wanting'to'use'
'
Castles'and'Miller'(2009)'Ch.'2'
'
Economic'theories'of'migration'
Neoclassical'theory'
Dual'or'segmented'labour'market'theory'
New'economics'of'labour'migration'theory'
' ' '
!'OVERARCHING'PROBLEMS:'focus'is'limited'to'individuals'as'rational'economic'actors;'
ignores'historical'and'political'contexts'
'
Dependency'theories'of'migration'
Historical[structural'approach'
World'Systems'Theory'
'!'OVERARCHING'PROBLEMS:'Still'too'much'emphasis'on'economics…'ignores'
human'agency/'individual'motivations'and'actions'
'
All'economic!theories!of!migration'theories'have'in'common'='based'on'assumption'
that'the'potential'immigrant'is'a'rational'actor'which'means'someone'who'is'fully'
informed'of'economic'conditions'and'other'aspects'of'the'country'of'immigration'
Also'that'migration'is'caused'by'supply'and'demand'in'labour'market'which'means'
thee'labour'market'is'what'influences'people'decision'to'immigrate'and'what'
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