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Lecture

Canadian History and Policy


Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC336H1
Professor
Brasch

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September 21 – Canadian Immigration History & Policy
Nation-building project
Expand population
Boost the economy
Develop society
Populate
Not everyone agrees with these points of immigration (i.e. debates)
Does immigration help or hurt the economy?
Take jobs from native-born workers?
Deplete the public treasury?
Do visa access abuses exist?
Does increased diversity (cultural and racial) increase potential for inequality and conflict?
How does immigration affect relations among Canadas established cultural groups?
Does immigration place Canada at riskfor border security and vulnerability to terrorism?
Migration
Push:
Hard conditions at home: economic, political, personal
Pull:
Opportunities elsewhere (especially employment)
International migration is selective (not everyone can come)
Physical barriers
Social barriers
oEconomic barriers (lower class have difficulties [upper class are doing well where they
are so they feel no need to move])
oLegal barriers
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Canada is a country of immigrants
French and English were the first to arrive
Four phases of immigration (Li, 2003)
1. 1867-1895: a laissez-faire philosophy
1.5 million immigrants, mostly from Europe
Severe restrictions on non-white immigrants
oChinese
Canadian Pacific Railway (1885)
Only group levied a head tax; family reunification prevented
Despite many discriminatory challenges, many of them remained in Canada
2. 1896-1914 (WW1):
Highest level of immigration in history
Improved agricultural production in prairies, higher crop prices, declining transportation rates,
and higher European demand for Canadian goods
To meet demand, encouraged Eastern and Southern European immigrants
Over 3 million immigrants arrived
Exclusion:
Explicit policies to ensure their immigration goals:
oHeadtax for Chinese immigrants were raised
oundesirables
3. 1915-1945:
Two world wars and a great depression
4. 1945-
New industrial growth, plus expanding areas of education, health and welfare, service sector and
government sector
Immigrants were needed because the jobs could not all be filled by the existing population, even
with more women entering the workforce
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1946-1955 = 1.2 million immigrants arrived
Competition high; demand high
Canada need to broaden its recruitment system
Universal Points System
Selects immigrants based on education, occupation, experience, official language skills, etc
Not based on their country of origin or racial background
Idea is that if you can get work, the other aspects of migration will fall into placeeconomic and social
contributions possible
1976 Immigration act
Formalized immigration principles and processes, gave parliamentary authority for setting target
numbers in relation to analysis of economic need and other priorities
2001 Immigration and refugee Protection Act
Provides in-Canada” applications for permanent residency
Key features of immigration policy ad new categories of migrants are enacted through
regulations issued by Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC)
Points required:
1967 = 50 points
1985 = 70 points
2001 = 75 points
2004 = 67 points
Application Fees
(see slide)
Savings
You must show that you have enough money to support yourself and your immediate family)
Dependent on the number of family members brought along
Medical exams, police clearance, and translation of documents
Plane ticket and miscellaneous expenses
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