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Two focuses…Urban Health
Description of health patterns
Infant mortality rates, life expectancy, mental health, quality of life, chronic conditi
Urban determinants of health patterns
How does the urban context impact health?
Four fundamental features
The social and demographic characteristics of individuals (i.e., gender, age, family form)
Air quality, infrastructure, accessibility, safe drinking water, garbage removal, noise, Ove
Structure of social relationships within in the community (i.e., social capital, cohesion, n
Health and social services
Mental heath facilities, hospitals, family doctors, nutritious foods, homeless shelters
Diversity within Cities
Neighbourhoods within cities can have differential effects for residents
—Access to resources
—Exposure to stressors
—Access to safe social spaces
Two reason concern urban health as a field of inquiry and practice.
1. There is growing importance, and influence, of cities worldwide.
2. Understanding the context, including the social, physical, political, or
policy environments within which we live.
In particular, most global population growth will occur in less wealthy
regions of the world, with the most rapid pace of growth expected to
occur in Asia and Africa.
Cities are ubiquitous, and their impact so pervasive, that it is difficult to WK 1 2
consider any aspect of health without thinking of the role of cities.
Impact of cities in two primary ways
1. Most obviously, as a growing propo