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SOC364H1 (40)


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Brent Berry

WK 6 1 What is psychological distress? Two major forms  Depression is “feeling sad, demoralized, lonely, hopeless, or worthless, wishing y ou were dead, having trouble sleeping, crying, feeling everything is an effort, and being unable to get going. “  Anxiety “is being tense, restless, worried, irritable, and afraid.” Distress embodies anxiety and depression symptoms reflecting affective impairment o f functioning ranging from mild to severe, and indicative of the probability of disorder. Defining neighbourhood in mental health literature. Three focal dimensions Spatial  Physical boundaries of the neighbourhood Structural  Related to social and demographic characteristics of individuals in the neighbourhood  Objective characteristics of neighhourhood Social  Perspectives of and interactions between residents  Cohesion, trust, collective efficacy  Social organization Two related sets of hypotheses in mental health literature:  Neighbourhoods that lack resources and present threats to individuals produce dis tress.  Disadvantaged neighbourhoods only seem distressing because individuals distress ed by their own personal disadvantages tend to live in them.  Main question researchers ask: Does any association between neighbourhood disa dvantage and distress remain NET of individual-level disadvantage?  i.e., Spurious association? Support for the Structural Model Most studies find only modest support for the structural model after considering indivi dual level variation  30-40% of the variation in mental health is due to between neighbourhood variati on  neighbourhood structural factors account for these differences, the remaining vari ation due to individual-level factors  Effects of neighbourhood disadvantage persist controlling for individual socioeco nomic status.  Galea shows a two-fold increase in the rate of individual depression in NYC due t WK 6 2 o socioeconomic disadvantage of the neighbourhood, over and above individual d isadvantage.  Wheaton and Clarke show that the effect of neighbourhood disadvantage is worse when individual disadvantage is worse. Defining The Social Model of Neighbourhood Individuals’ perspectives of the neighbourhood, and the interactions between residents  Social organization  Collective efficacy, cohesion, trust, social ties, and capital  Real and perceived disorder – “objective social and physical conditions that indic ate a breakdown of social control in the community”  From this perspective, neighbourhood disadvantage is a primary stressor that lead s to disorganization and disorder–secondary stressors  Measures of organization and disorder measured at the individuallevel or agg regate (“ecometric” assessment, Hill and Maimon 2013)  Individual-level (perceptions only; subjective)  Aggregate (more objective measure) Neighbourhood disadvantage, disorder, and distress Neighbourhood disadvantage---> perceived neighbourhood disorder ---> depression Is perceived neighborhood disorder associated with levels of depression?  Yes. There is a positive association that is steepest at the lowest and highest levels of neighborhood disorder—especially at the upper end. Does perceived neighbourhood disorder mediate the association between neighbourho od disadvantage and depression?  Yes. The remaining net effect of neighbourhood disadvantage (after we consider i
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