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Lecture 9

Lecture 9.pdf

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University of Toronto St. George
Brent Berry

Lecture 9: the health of urban immigrants and ethnic minorities Immigration and urban health  Most immigrants today settle in cities, especially the largest cities  Cities with large influxes of immigrants are becoming increasingly different from other cities in Canada(in growth rate, in diversity)  High levels of immigration is contributing to voluntary and involuntary forms of o Residential segregation o Ethnic enclaves  A physical space with high ethnic concentration; thus these spaces are culturally distinct from the lager receiving society  Can provide resources, networks and social capital that influence economic mobility History of immigration into Canada  1900-1940: immigrants mostly from British Isles and northwestern European countries; settle mostly on the Prairies or the West  1940-1950s: over 1.2 million immigrants entering, mostly from Italy, Greece  1960-present: over 2.2 million entering, mostly from non-European countries, Middles East, Africa, Asia and Pacific regions, mostly settle in cities(especially in large cities)  By 2006, over 30% of residents in 10 largest Canadian cities are foreign-born, even higher in Toronto Countries of origin  Number of immigrants from Europe has decreased  Asia has increased  U.S. has also increased Immigration patterns Canada 1. China 2. India 3. Philippines 4. Pakistan 5. US 6. South Korea  Ontario; 52.3  Quebec; 17.5  Alberta; 9.3  Manitoba; 2.8  Btw 01-06, 68.9% ended up in Toronto, Vancouver, Montreal Immigration patterns Toronto  2.3 million foreign-born people in Toronto in 2006  45. 7% of the CMA’s  40% new immigrants settled in Toronto region  Top two source countries for recent immigrant to Toronto were Asian Health and immigration  Acculturation to host country and post-migration stressors  Pre-migration stressors and country of origin  Ethnicity and culture  Availability of psychological and social resources Two theories of immigration and health 1. The marginal man  Stress of migration and the alienation from the dominant culture due to both discrimination and cultural and linguistic difference decrease health o Multiple barriers and stressors of post-immigration  Immigrants’ health worse than native, but overtime, can become better  Association btw immigration and health o Process of acculturation and time in the host country-> improvement of the immigrant’s mental health 2. The healthy immigrant effect  Argues that recent migrants have better health than both the native-born pop and long-term migrants  Association btw immigration and health o With increasing time of stay in the host country immigrants’ health status diminishes to a level somewhat comparable or worse than native-born populations  Why o Adopt unhealthy behaviors o Self-selection of healthier, wealthier immigrants  Previous evidence o Ali found that migrants, with the exception of those who had stayed in the country for a period of time exceeding 30 years, have lower rates of depression and alcohol abuse than native-born  Both marginal man and healthy immigrant perspectives posit that the mental health of immigrants will converge to that of no difference with the native population Support to Date for ‘Healthy Immigrant Effect’  Due to a two sided self-selection process (Schiffaur 1991) 1. The chronically ill and disabled are less likely to migrate; 2. Migrants are thought to be particularly courageous, innovative and socially skilled individuals who choose to leave the life they knew behind and venture to a new and foreign land.  immigration policy can also indirectly encourage positive mental health selection o Point system in Canada increases entry of immigrants who are well-educated, employed, parents, and married, thus indirectly affecting the mental health profile of the immigrant population. Montazer and Wheaton (2011)  Research topic o The authors examine the mental health trajectory of children of immigrants  Research question o To what extent does country of origin (GNP) conditionally influence the mental health of immigrants over time? o Fit between GNP of origin and host country  Contribution and argument o Focus on multiple generations (rather than combining) o Go beyond generational differences o A conditional model of adaptation  The adjustment process will be modified by the origin/ destination similarity of the level of GNP per capita at the time of immigration.  Effect of generation on mental health is conditional on level of economic development of country of origin of parents  Those from lowest GNP countries worse off Economic development of country of origin Gross Domestic Product (GNP)  Average income (including production abroad) of a country’s citizens)  A broad signal of fundamental differences, not only in standards of living, but also in employment and educational opportunities  Indicator of socioeconomic development Main Predictions of Montazer and Wheaton (2011) Two predictions… 1. The health of immigrants will slowly deteriorate across generations  But only for those from the most contrasting countries of origin (i.e., lowest GNP) 2. Immigrants from countries with a similar GNP to the host country will have comparable health to the
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