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SOC364H1 (40)
Lecture 10

Lecture 10.pdf

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC364H1
Professor
Brent Berry
Semester
Fall

Description
Lecture 10: urban health of special populations—youth and older adults General background  More children live in cities than in years before o By 2050 estimated 24% of the US population will be made up of children (Guyer et al. 1996) o Children in urban centres are more likely to be living in poverty and have a parent with less than high education(Wertheime et al. 2002) o Consequences of urban centres for children  Population density  Insufficient income  Inadequate housing  Outdoor pollution have implications for the health of children in urban centre o Benefits of urban centres for children  Ethnic diversity  Urban schools  Connectedness for health outcome Main features affecting children’s health  Health care (US)  Socioeconomic status (concentrated pockets)  Social capital (networks and schools)  Food & recreation accessibility and risky behaviors o Obesity (15%) o Diabetes, sleep apnea, asthma (7%).  Long term health consequences urbanization o Pollution o Hazardous waste o Poor housing Adolescent’s experiences (teenager) Aneshensel, CS, Sucoff CA. 1996.  Neighborhood features interact with parental background to influence health outcomes  Distinguish two components of neighborhood o Structural properties  Average socioeconomic status and racial/ ethnic segregation o Subjective experiences  Ambient hazards  Social cohesion Method  Community survey of 877 adolescents in LA  12-17 years old o Diverse ethnic background and socioeconomic status characteristics  Health outcome o Depression, anxiety o Conduct disorder o Opposition defiant disorder  Subjective neighborhood o Ambient hazard 环境或危害  Drive-by-shootings  Graffiti  Police give hard time  Housing o Cohesion  Socially connected to one another  Physical neighborhood o Average socioeconomic status o Racial/ ethnic composition o Neighborhood stability  Neighborhood clusters Results Are adolescents susceptible to neighborhood structural disadvantage? Are these associations due to the experiences of youth in these neighborhoods? 1. Neighborhood structural disadvantage shapes adolescents’ perceptions of ambient hazards 2. Neighborhood stability decreases perceived hazards and increases cohesion, suggesting adolescents benefit from a more stable environment.  Critique? 3. Hazards lead to worse health for all outcomes 4. Cohesion reduces depression only 5. Structural disadvantage impacts adolescents’ health directly  Conduct disorder most common in underclass cluster  Oppositional defiant disorder is most common in middle class or affluent clusters  Authors explain findings for conduct disorder by o Culture of opposition” (Massey and Denton 1993)  Adaptation to hopeless circumstances  What might explain the findings for oppositional defiant disorder? o Erikson’s identity crisis  How does family background play into the results? o Selection versus causation… Selection into neighborhoods Why not randomization?  Preferences (family/friends, work, familiarity),  constraints (knowledge, affordability) We usually cannot measure these things.  Family background can select individuals into neighborhoods Older adults and urban health Physical structure about older adults  Growing population of older adults o Baby boomers; 20 % by 2030 o Approximately 75% live in urban areas  More susceptible b/c spend more time in neighborhood o More time for discretionary activities  More likely to live in disadvantage areas o Elderly urban poverty rate 14% o Widowed women make up a large population 70% o Prevalence of chronic illnesses o More susceptible to threat  Decline in mastery  Reliant on social environment  Context must encourage healthy aging o Physical amenities and environment o Housing o Transportation o Activities o Healthcare Social environment and composition  The impact of structural disadvantage on health may depend on relative comparisons to others in one’s neighborhood  Relative deprivation o Different btw groups of people in the same context o Relative to another Relative deprivation and well-being  Related to that …  Karl Marx o “A house may be large or small; as long as the neighboring houses are likewise
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