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SOC364 SEPT 26.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Brent Berry

SOC364 SEPT 26, 2012 CONT FROM LAST CLASS THE FILM - Long term trend in housing is privatization of space - Public spaces best ones are quite small - Number of elements of public spaces - Social determinants of health - Yesterday recent study consider themselves generally happy – happiest is the younger people 12-18 - Social media is connecting young people more today and internet coming of age and improving social qualities - Streetscape , with developments people complain about height but first 2 to 3 stories important how people interact with environment The three torontos - Head way in racial and ethnic segration - Greater levels of socioeconomic segragagtion - Individual and employment income - Same map on income what do we see - Certain section inverveted up to the 401 - Affluent central section - And waterfront - Consistent increasing income since 1980 roughly 13% of the city - White no change not increasing or decreasing - Red border blue but major dividing line - Microlevel something separating such as a physical barrier - Like Detroit 8 mile, an 8 mile of north divided Detroit from more affluent area – walls were erected and roads sealed up - In Toronto much more complexity - Some barriers where find affluent and one stagnated, often type of housing like social housing - Toronto high rise throughout the city other cities cluster in the core - High rise distributed more leads to same census tract but different lives, social from affluent living - Doesn’t address microlevel more birds eye view - Large areas of decline Next - Break down bar chart income average Next - Trends income decreasing andincreasing - Ratio of income over time Next - Epidemic type graph - Large sections see income down very low below median - Below metropolitain average - High neighborhoods - Mirrors other graphs - Green square in parkdale – lots of social housing disadvantage but art scene - Take home point things do change Toronto has change dramatically point to immigration but economic has consequences bc eco well being where we live and how we live - Not saying affluent areas healthier environment but greater distance from pollution and greater services but positive things from low income communities Todays lecture Multilevel determints of health up and down stream Reading by Kaplan u of Michigan social epidemiologists and somewhat of a sociologists – bc micro to macro Whats wrong with epidemiology – explanatory frameworks Upstream - Epidemiologist - To much proximal causes meaning closest to you – such as inherit or susceptabioluty or withing the household more closer then social policies - Too much resources in addressing health from micro or downstream – down is close to you - More complete is multilevel approach - Hwo u influenced by environments and what influence environments Schematic - Lays out his perspective - We reside at bottom and move proximal to distal and different layers - Further environment more macro - Priorities on health we start at observing health from individuals and immediate dtereminets - Pathophysicologci pathways – all organisms break down and worn out diseases occur regardless of what is going on around us – more emphasis here - Can we slow down aging - What disease process interrupt - After manifested - Some people more prone developing cancers - Other issues on obesity - Predisposed to ther health problems – all withing individual - Out of that of our bodies the environments - Epidemiologist look at risk factors - Individual factors – substance abuse – all determined by temperament intelligence and contextualize withing social relationships - On average net benefit to social relationships - Correlation from social relations and individual health - Living conditions more generally like housing , work in - Significant level of neigh and communities bc changing a lot – an ideal level to implement interventions – many communities are not territorial not defined by physical space but reflect social networks – virtual communites - And institutions – investments - In Ontario substance abuse like alcohol have rules on liqor stores in America alcohol stores were abuse takes place - Framework not let people be worst enemy - Canada less les se faire then us - Canada rigid regulations of behvaiour and access to thing not healthy then other places - Other institituions – consumer good like alcohol, churches - This shaped by social and economic policies - Toronto housing bubble people spending resources into hoem and difficult economic times - Us terrible economy places drop as much as 60% - Boom occurred due to access to capital and fallout on every different level - Comes back down to policies that have been made - And what does to communites and tax and then effect on health through social relationships effected and social insititions - Toronto over longer period of time - Not interaction from one level to another level and interactions - Munk at political realm - Implications for individual health and how effect different levels 2004 - Talks about different models - Page 2 up and downstream determeinants of health - Figure 3. Explanatory , causal influcen - Key factors are social conditions - Works through many explanatory variables - Like medical care and insurance - Psychsocial risk factors don’t know how hazard somethings are - Multilevel determinents - Figure 4 - Health and aging - Move through life course conception to old age - Solid arrowns indicate causal and dotted indicate interactions - Figure 5 - Multilevel - Different models different metaphors - Priorites for things we should study - Figure 6 - Cardiovascular disease as an outcome - Many lifestyle health behaviours resources - Fewer genes then what the think - Co
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