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Women and Work Lecture- Jan 30.doc

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC366H1
Professor
Stephen Reid
Semester
Winter

Description
Women and Work Lecture January 30, 2013 Exploring Labour Market Discrimination and Sex Segregation What is Discrimination? • Canadian Human Rights Commission: treating people differently, negatively or adversely because of their race, age, religion, sex, etc. • Can be someone with a disability not being hired even though they can still perform the job • To prove discrimination you have to prove there is a distinction made between individuals or groups of individuals based on one of these prohibited categories • Discrimination process: noticing, activating, action o You notice someone is different than someone else [nothing wrong with this] o Activating: you notice this person and you attach a label and the label activates all the beliefs you associate with the label [is where a lot of variance comes in] o Acting: ex. a hiring manager that is a man, he notices she’s a woman and activates this label, then his beliefs come up such as she is in childbearing years and will likely leave to have children and as a result, does not hire her o Unequal + harmful • Forms of discrimination: direct [standards or policies on their face] or indirect [standards and policies that are neutral on their face but their effects are adverse- affect one of the prohibited groups] o Overt: direct discrimination- unequal and harmful treatment easily documented, measureable and visible. Ex. unequal salaries in men and women doing the same job o Subtle: “grey area- can be direct or indirect”- visible but not necessarily noticed because we internalize sexist, racist and homophobic things as “normal” in society. But this may be unintentional but not right of course o Covert: indirect discrimination. It is always intentional, hidden and it is hard to document. Ex. if we knew that the manager was hiring from his networks and he knew the networks were male-documented and he wanted a man, this would be covert discrimination because he is trying to keep women “in their place” down below and not in management positions. Another ex. is imposing impossible deadlines on someone in their job that you know they cannot meet so that they look incompetent but its based on one of categories above Gender Discrimination • Social: gender discrimination is a social problem o Interventionist approach: “What can we do?” It is an issue which requires fixing with things like publicity campaigns • Analytical: gender discrimination is an analytical problem o Theoretical problem o “Why does it exist? How does it exist? Where does it come from?” o Analytical questions: 1) Existence [Why does society differentiate based on gender?] 2) Variation [How does gender bias vary? Why is there more discrimination in certain organizations?] • In order to make a change, we need both of these models to come together Locus (‘source’) of Discrimination • Where is it coming from and who is involved in the process? • Individuals who act in a discriminatory way on the basis of another’s gender • Systemic [institutional] discrimination: comes from the system itself Explanations for Sex Segregation •
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