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Lecture 5

SOC366 Lecture 5.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Stephen Reid

Lecture 5 2/6/2013 11:12:00 AM Sex Segregation and Barriers to Integration: - sex segregation: looks at male/female differences and what they do in paid work  revolves around idea that occupations themselves seem to be „male‟ or „female‟ * definition= the tendency for men/women to be employed in diff occupations  across occupations - gender concentration: concerned w sex composition of workforce within an occupation  representation of one sec within one occupation where men/women work in Canada: - SEE SLIDEgender distribution trends in Canadian occupations: * #s in red= ID male dominated occupations * blue #s= female dominated occupations * not coloured= not dominated - men continue to dominate heavily in manufacturing/trade occupations  93% of trade/transport etc occupations - primary industry= 77% men (^ these are all blue collar jobs) - men also dominate professional/technical white-collar occupations  79% in natural/applied science occupations are men THUS: men/women are doing different types of work  At bottom: labour intense= dominated by men  But at top: white-collar= dominated by men - women= ^ in government and health/ministration occupations  govs have to hire women bc they preach equality  these jobs also have benefits/wages thus women don‟t only have “bad” jobs o idea that gender is within job itself= these jobs require people/caring skills IE nursing trends: - US/Canadian markets, in terms of sex segregation, are comparable - between 1980-2010: red are jobs that got more segregated; green: less  bottom are male dominated; middle are integrated  thus: women jobs are based on care but there are gov jobs (postal service/law and medicine) that have become more integrated* o suggests vertical sex segregation: more women moving into law/medical economy o w respect to human-capital theory: there are more women graduating from law schools currently than men how do we measure sex segregation: * index of dissimilarity (ID) : - what it measures: # of women who would have to change their occupation to equalize distribution of jobs between men and women - varies between zero= no sex segregation, and 1= complete sex segregation [.5= integration] problem: sensitive to factors other than segregation itself ** there are issues using occupations, even though they‟re readily available: - “occupation” is an aggregate measurement (it constitutes many jobs) when you focus on whole occupations, it underestimates how much sex segregation is occurring  IE different positions within occupation have diff sex segregation ***best level of analysis of sex segregation is the position of job - fewer women as you move up in supervisory positions (managerial positions are mainly dominated by men, even though women #s are increasing) - “Catalyst” info: over past 5 years, women # of board seats in Fortune 500 have increased 1%  glacial increase (only 15.7% women in 2010) vertical and horizontal sex segregation: - horizontal= men/women doing vastly different work across occupations  the work types are different—not differentially valued  ** in other words: about distribution of men/women across occupations (could be same occupations or different—just about diff jobs) - vertical= men/women doing differentially valued work within same occupation  about status, as well as the gender dominance, of the occupation [*Scandinavian countries= mandatory paternity leave ARTICLE : US: 16.1% of women in board seats; Norway: 40.1%] example of index of dissimilarity: **horizontal segregation has increased; but vertical sex segregation has decreased  horizontal hasn‟t changed much; but more women have entered the hierarchy of better jobs women and promotions: - women have moved into better jobs, but as you move up organizations there are very few women (glass ceiling) - 4 areas in which women face barriers: 1) getting into male dominated jobs  looks at women gaining entry at all less of a problem now; bc there‟s clearly more women infiltrating better jobs 2) getting into managerial jobs  the glass ceiling 3) getting “real” authority  the authority problem: male managers manage $/ppl—women have control over other things IE scheduling 4) exercising authority  the compliance problem: getting her male subordinates to comply to her authority ** women are NOT generally less promoted than men but they‟re less likely to be promoted than men: the glass ceiling: barrier to women‟s further promotions within fields  they DO get managerial positions, but their tasks aren‟t as valuable; don‟t have “real” authority - glass escalator: Christine Williams looked at men in female dominated occupations—wondered if men were hitting a glass ceiling?:  results= oppositemen rode a glass escalator in female dominated jobs o means that despite their ambition, men still have i
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