soc366 lecture 3 JAN23 1/23/2013 11:12:00 AM
How employment and employment resource affect gender’
Test the model
Recession where most men lost their jobs
Relative resource model
Exchange model-exchange between partner and household
Dependency-who has power
Inputs-earning, outcome-who is doing the housework and how it is divided
Hypothesis: recent increases in the earnings levels of wives should have
produced proportional decreases in the amo9unt of housework wives do
-association between money and housework, as women make more money,
they have more bargaining power and less housework.
Because women earn less than men, women do more housework.
-the model is very economic and based the rational individual.
-straight forward model.
-economic sphere about the rational individual. Focus is on how much time
you have. Draws on human capital theory.
-choice based model, women invest less in human capital and demanding
jobs to maximize inputs.
Becker-talks a lot about time and effort. Argues that time is implicit supplies,
only have certain amount of energy. Paid work and childcare requires
enormous amount of energy. more boundaries of specializing in just one
sphere. Might put all energy in one sphere.
Problem: because of the fixed time energy component, women should spend
their energy and time devoted to housework, men into work. Having tow
individuals specializing in two different thing, more outcomes. Because it is a
choice model, rational decision are made that women choose to opt out of
competing. Women choose less demanding occupations. Choose to go into
feminizing jobs. Because it is the most rational. Pure time and energy not
talking about power. The previous model talks about the power. Hypothesis; relationship between hours worked outside and housework.
Alternative model; need to consider job condition, which change people’s
demand to household work. In certain families, husband share more
responsibility because of they have more time.
Better model in understanding why some men share more.
Gender ideology: norms that direct and indirect.
How you identify yourself in regards of work and family work. –gender
Marriage is a key institution in the identity and ideology that plays out.
Some could be more career-oriented.
Would have a different negotiation. The reality is that there is support for it.
Depends how you measuring housework, another measure is relative. More
accurate measure is relative. If mother have more support at working, they
do more housework.
Gender ideology and identity
Major social imagination. Only 20% of husband share housework. Also found
women do a more daily jobs. (cooking, cleaning, and healthcare). Men do
more jobs that are occasional. Less desirable jobs such as cleaning toilets.
Women do more childcare maintenance where men do more en