March 27 th
Work family and self; changing families; lagging ideologies
Work and family interference
- work family conflicts are a response to a lag between demographic change and a
ideology of whos prepared.
- Clash between whats expected in the workplace and that of the house.
- Been growing since the 1980s
- Rise of contingent work and non standard work- flexibility in work and how we
- Role and rise of mobile technology
- Historical progression of work family conflict-
- 1950‟s- breadwinner homemaker model- work and family are Separate spheres,
because of gender specific roles of work and family
- 1970‟s- explosion of women into paid workforce- really changed the idea of work
and family and gave rise to (Spillover theories)how do both these domain spill
over to the other? ….. spill over can be negative- (conflict at home) or positive
(how womens family life positively influence worklife)
- 1980‟s this idea became crystalized and the idea of ROLE STRAIN was born.
Work family interface (intersection)… role strain- we take on multiple roles.
Becaue we take on many roles- there are many obligations of
time/money/energy- and because these are finite resources- we enter ROLE
STRAIN(conflict). (eg- worker/mother- cannot be given 100% of the time…)..
and this leads to work family conflict.
- Work family conflict- a form of inter role conflict in which the pressures from the
work and family domains are mutually incompatible in some respect. (Greenhaus
and Beutell 1985)
- Role strain theory (2) (1990s)- scarcity of resources not sufficient to articulate
gendered expectations of women in the work. 2) gendered nature of te workplace.
3)moral divison of labor….. RST2- not only the „multiple hat‟ idea but we need to
consider that different roles have different MEANINGS to different people…
quality is more imp than quantity (the amount of roles taken on)… there are
cultural expectations of different roles in society (good mother, good parent, good
- Because of RST2… women are expected pledge allegiance to a firm if you wanna
get ahead. CANNOT have external commitments. BUT the ideal mother is the
opposite idea. (read gersten article)… the Ideology of what is expected by a
worker or mother has NOT CHANGED… even though more women are getting
into the workplace… these are competing demands… women are still expected to
get personal well being and development by caring for other people!
- Work/family and family-work conflict both lead to anxiety and negative
- Role strain VS Role Enhancement:
- Even though evidence supports role strain… many believe that employment
serves positive functions especially for women. - Commitment in one domain doesn‟t necessarily mean its eating into the other
domain. Diversity and experience in one domain can lead to positive attributes in
the other domain (workers can help with family problems)… hence there is also a
good spill over
- Then comes the rise f the ROLE ENHANCEMENT THEORY:
- Consequences of work family conflict on gender diff- men and women show
similar work family conflicts!
- How often do you feel like work interferes with family… or vice versa.. but this
could mean different things to women and men. (for example the second shift is
diff between genders)
- What are the consequences of work family conflict between men and women?
(this helps us understand the meaning of social roles between genders)
- Women reported more psychological distress and guilt than men (in professors
article) but this is not because of work family conflict… this is because women
feel more guilty about it – meanings of roles are felt differently by men and
women. Women feel bad about family roles being interrupted by work. The
MEANING of roles, helps understand the interface between women and men.
Cultural expectations get embodied by us and makes us feel a certain way.
- SIMON article- men believe these roles are interdependent… good father is good
worker or vice versa. There is no competition