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Sociology (3,253)
SOC366H1 (25)


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Michael Reid

Lecture #2 5/19/2011 7:10:00 AM  Household debate  How work is defined,  Shifts in history and results of those shifs  What is ideology that holds this institutional arrangements, where did it come from.  We trust women more than men. Ideology influences how we organize our selves and our own identities. Motherhood vs. worker identity. We afford status and Power to work identities.  1% ownership of the means of Power – in any society, if you won things that signifies Power – if you own things you make decision, control people. o Women in West have more ownership than women in other countries. o White middle class women contracting out work to women of colour. What Is Work?  What are the 2 forms of human production that character a society? o 2 central processes that keep society going o 1) Economic Production – through mode of production. Defines the main type of mode of Production – Marx – we have a Capitalist mode of production. o 2) Production of People- if you don’t have people, can’t create economic production. This is carried out through a sex-gender system: sexual division of labour in society.  These 2 things are not distinct, they are related. How are they related? o Marxists: typically focus on means of production ( class) – focuses on class inequality. Difference between the owners and workers. Haves and have-nots  Gender is secondary. Class equality is drive to distribute resources. This notion ASSUMES gender reproduction is a given – someone is already socializing you and feeding you well enough to go to work. o Feminists: there is definitely a problem with access to resources and it is unequal, however, where does gender come in?  not only are mode of production and human production, the economic system actually RELIES on unpaid system. There is definitely class inequality, but the basis actually depends on human production – it is totally ignored because it is not in paid realm. This is seen in language – “work” – doesn’t describe what women do at home.  The whole capitalist system depends on making unpaid work invisible, unimportant.  Even if we change mode of production (capitalism – redistribute resources), it wouldn’t address why women are responsible for child care.  TOGETHER: CLASS system also has gender embedded – there are rich and poor and within those rungs on the latter, here are 2 genders, they have different access to resources also. How is Women’s Work Related to Capitalism?  What is driving inequality in society? o ****Feminists came up with social reproduction: SOCIAL important. It emphasizes the system and the process of childrearing. Fine, women carry children, but it doesn’t mean women are better at feeding a child than men are. There is a SOCIAL aspect – it is a process.  it is the manual work, the psychological work going into caring for a family.  It takes emphasis away from biological and natural and emphasizes that is SOCIAL. Childrearing by women is not natural.  Constructing another system based on the biology which is social.  This is about social systems and social ideologies that are perpetuated – i.e. what is a good mom, need to have mom and dad. o If social reproduction is thought of as work…  Marxists just focus on paid work.  We need to address human production aspect of work. ****TEST: why is definition o social reproduction important? 1) identifies women’s unpaid work, outside of economic realm as WORK. It has an importance because economic system relies on it. The Power of Ideology  Systems of ideology sometimes improves a condition, and sometimes it deproves the situation, usually based on biology.  Separation work : economic realm – paid work. Wasn’t always like this. Work was carried out in a home by all members. The whole family’s subsistence depended on each family member. The husband had a trade and whole family helped.  Industrial Revolution –separation of spheres. Work was carried out in factories. Very important for gender relations. o Here work, motherhood come from. All these things didn’t exist. Work is not carried out in the home and the sphere is separated. Men left home to work in factories, o Work was at home (getting food), ad taking care of kids – was all part of life, wasn’t seen as separate from the “work”. Now work leaves the home, what do women do then? Demographic shift: ideology of separate spheres happens. th 19 century. o Separation occurred because of inherent physical characteristics – women are smaller, more frail. There were horrible conditions, it was gross and dangerous. This offorded power and was associated with masculinity. At time wasn’t glorified. o Women were weaker than men but MORALLY superior to men. Still case today. We need women to keep kids in line. They thought women were unfit for economic competition. o Home was haven in heartless world. Home was loving, work was cold and calculated. o Ideology of separate spheres separated M and F. o These are social constructions because they were not always this way. Shows they were byproduct of a demographic change.  Social Reproduction as a Labour of Love: o L of L: language keeps people in their place. Term indicates what happens in a house isn’t work, it’s love, can’t put a price on it. Says, lets not look at the house as an economy, that’s gross, that’s in the love realm. It upsets the system if you do. Patriarchy  Ideology: need to know what it is or not  Set of SOCIAL relations between men – has a MATERIAL base. It is through a hierarchy that it creates solidarity between men. The material base is men’s control over women’s labour power. The people running the system and who make decision are men. IT is NOT a biologically or moral imperative where men need to dominate women – They are NOT born to want to dominate. Patriarchy is a SYSTEM, structure, institution, that pushes mena dn women to fit into normalized roles about sexual division of labour.  1%
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