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Michael Reid

Lecture#3 Gender, Power and Money in the Private Sphere: Does Gender Always Trump money? 5/24/2011 6:57:00 AM  Last lecture: paid and unpaid work. What is said about masculinity and femininity  What are the models and frameworks used for how housework is divided.  Trends in household labour: what has gone over time, cross- sectional (one moment in time)  Example: how she would do a critical review.  What would lead to more gender parity in housework Negotiating Housework: What Matters?... 2 Models  Show me the money? Perspective 1) Relative resources/resource baragaining models  Relative resources approach is a) exchange based and a b)dependency perspective.  Division of labour at home is negotiation between spouses based on earnings and this creates an output.  I will barter with what I bring home.  Hypothesis: women’s employment and participation has risen, so has wages.  Therefore increase in wages should decrease the amount of work they do at home. You buy out of doing housework.  Has to do dependency. However, gender-wage gap still creates more of a dependency because exchange then men. 2) Time is Money?  Time availability Models  It’s a rational choice theory. They look at the paid work hours/  Hypothesis 1: women’s paid work is a lot, increase in housework. If you’re at work, you have less time to do work at home.  Reality, employed moms and unemployed moms do only slightly less work. They carry out a second shift: Problem with this theory****  Hypothesis 2: demands response capability  Adding context to time element.  i.e. men who have jobs where they have schedule control and flexibility might do more work because they choose when they work. Maybe they can leave at 3 and do some housework. Maybe they work from home  Research supports this, they contribute more. 3) Im just a girl?  Gender Models  Completely different from the fist two– not exchange of resources or time. These are “rational choice theories”  1)Gender ideologies: the norms surrounding masculinity and feminity weigh in on who does work at home. It helps people identify themselves.  2)Identities: doing our gender appropriately, feeling good and feeling validated.  Geneder not only affects housework through things like wages but also affects division of labour through things like expectations.  Ideology is very salient.  How a person identifies themselves in marital and family roles  If you feel like you are more traditional in your roles, this has to do with ideology but also it affects your identity.  Hypothesis: women who hold more traditional ideologies carry out more childcare and housework because it affects their identities. They would do bulk of work  Hypothesis: Women who are more egalitarian: doing less housework. Believing to be able to commit equal time to work and housework.  What does research say?  Evidence is inconsistent across samples.  Role of ideology – depends on measures of the study i.e. relative to how much work husband does OR how many hours a female does of housework. -say, my gender ideology has to negotiate with my partners. You can say you’re egalitarian but you can still do more house work. Empirical testing: Weighing the Evidence: Hochshild  Relates to ideology. 1) Second Shift: 1989: looked at different family types and ethnic groups. 2) Gender leisure gap: women on average worked 15 hours per week than men = extra month a year. 3) “Second shift” Finding: Only 20% of husbands share housework. Women carried out daily routine jobs – cooking cleaning. More undesirable. Childcare: feeding and bathing Men: doing flexible work. odd jobs not everyday: fixing car, did enjoyable activities i.e. playing with child at park. 4) We are in a state of “Stalled Revolution” – a situation that lacks social arrangements that allow for equality  The gender revolution that came out of second wave feminism. Influenced by women entering labour market.  Money does equal power, independence, autonomy, ****Assignment*****  Women have changed drastically from their mothers (stay at home moms), however men had not changed from their fathers. They still go out to work but don’t do housework.  Arlie found that F ideologies have changed drastically – more egalitarian – identified with work role more, traditional women were minority, transitional women: identified with both. 1) Women’s ideologies have changed from traditional view but men’s views have not changed. 2) You don’t just have ideology and that’s how it goes. Other people have other ideologies and we are bargaining. Ideology is not static – has to do with opportunity structure.  Upstairs and downstairs myth: what is looks like when gender ideology negotiate: - you come in as egalitarian women but men don’t make a change. 1) How fair do you think it is? Sense of fairness has to do with fairness. “ I feel like your contribution is fair or not” 2) Upstairs; living room, dining room, kitchen etc. He does the downstairs: garage.  Nancy is doing all the housework trough negotiation because they had this “upstairs or garage” arrangement.  Explanation: he supported her having a career, he identified as an egalitarian man. BUT that shouldn’t affect him and what he needs to do at home.  Also, before Nancy worked he offered for her to stay at home and not work “ the economy of gratitude”. – Nancy feel grateful but the real reality is not happening. (patriarchy) This is something he is going to give to her. Has to do with gender. This is a “gift”. Money is power.  Negotiation of upstairs and downstairs – he gets to identify with his ideology and she can identify her with working outside the home. However, she does all the housework at home still. This is very complicated. 3) Something has to give at the end of the day – she had to cut back hours of work to do the house work. If you have less wages you have less negotiation power at home. Davies and Carrier (reading)  Test of relative resources. Looks at power relations in CA couples.  How something is measured is going to effect the conclusions.  NOT going to test methodology but need to know  Note the time – 1982.  Quanitative. Does not include childcare as a division of household labour. This is a main demand on women’s time – emotional. This will underestimate how much women do  What are their focal variable: main things they are looking
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