Gender, Power and Money in the Private Sphere:
Does Gender Always Trump money? 5/24/2011 6:57:00 AM
Last lecture: paid and unpaid work. What is said about masculinity
What are the models and frameworks used for how housework is
Trends in household labour: what has gone over time, cross-
sectional (one moment in time)
Example: how she would do a critical review.
What would lead to more gender parity in housework
Negotiating Housework: What Matters?... 2 Models
Show me the money? Perspective
1) Relative resources/resource baragaining models
Relative resources approach is a) exchange based and
a b)dependency perspective.
Division of labour at home is negotiation between
spouses based on earnings and this creates an output.
I will barter with what I bring home.
Hypothesis: women’s employment and participation has
risen, so has wages.
Therefore increase in wages should decrease the
amount of work they do at home. You buy out of
Has to do dependency. However, gender-wage
gap still creates more of a dependency because
exchange then men.
2) Time is Money?
Time availability Models
It’s a rational choice theory. They look at the paid
Hypothesis 1: women’s paid work is a lot,
increase in housework. If you’re at work, you
have less time to do work at home. Reality, employed moms and unemployed
moms do only slightly less work. They carry
out a second shift: Problem with this
Hypothesis 2: demands response capability
Adding context to time element.
i.e. men who have jobs where they have
schedule control and flexibility might do
more work because they choose when they
work. Maybe they can leave at 3 and do some
housework. Maybe they work from home
Research supports this, they contribute
3) Im just a girl?
Completely different from the fist two– not
exchange of resources or time. These are
“rational choice theories”
1)Gender ideologies: the norms surrounding
masculinity and feminity weigh in on who does work at
home. It helps people identify themselves.
2)Identities: doing our gender appropriately, feeling
good and feeling validated.
Geneder not only affects housework through things like
wages but also affects division of labour through things
Ideology is very salient.
How a person identifies themselves in marital and
If you feel like you are more traditional in
your roles, this has to do with ideology but
also it affects your identity.
Hypothesis: women who hold more traditional
ideologies carry out more childcare and housework
because it affects their identities. They would do bulk of
work Hypothesis: Women who are more egalitarian: doing
less housework. Believing to be able to commit equal
time to work and housework.
What does research say?
Evidence is inconsistent across samples.
Role of ideology – depends on measures of the study i.e. relative to
how much work husband does OR how many hours a female does
-say, my gender ideology has to negotiate with my partners. You can say
you’re egalitarian but you can still do more house work.
Weighing the Evidence: Hochshild
Relates to ideology.
1) Second Shift: 1989: looked at different family types and
2) Gender leisure gap: women on average worked 15 hours
per week than men = extra month a year.
3) “Second shift” Finding: Only 20% of husbands share
Women carried out daily routine jobs – cooking cleaning. More
undesirable. Childcare: feeding and bathing
Men: doing flexible work. odd jobs not everyday: fixing car, did
enjoyable activities i.e. playing with child at park.
4) We are in a state of “Stalled Revolution” – a situation that
lacks social arrangements that allow for equality
The gender revolution that came out of second wave
feminism. Influenced by women entering labour market.
Money does equal power, independence,
Women have changed drastically from their
mothers (stay at home moms), however men had not changed from their fathers. They still go out to
work but don’t do housework.
Arlie found that F ideologies have changed drastically – more
egalitarian – identified with work role more, traditional women
were minority, transitional women: identified with both.
1) Women’s ideologies have changed from traditional view but
men’s views have not changed.
2) You don’t just have ideology and that’s how it goes. Other
people have other ideologies and we are bargaining. Ideology
is not static – has to do with opportunity structure.
Upstairs and downstairs myth: what is looks like when gender
ideology negotiate: - you come in as egalitarian women but men
don’t make a change.
1) How fair do you think it is? Sense of fairness has to do with
fairness. “ I feel like your contribution is fair or not”
2) Upstairs; living room, dining room, kitchen etc. He does the
Nancy is doing all the housework trough negotiation
because they had this “upstairs or garage”
Explanation: he supported her having a career, he
identified as an egalitarian man. BUT that
shouldn’t affect him and what he needs to do at
Also, before Nancy worked he offered for her to stay at
home and not work “ the economy of gratitude”. –
Nancy feel grateful but the real reality is not happening.
(patriarchy) This is something he is going to give to her.
Has to do with gender. This is a “gift”. Money is power.
Negotiation of upstairs and downstairs – he gets to
identify with his ideology and she can identify her with
working outside the home. However, she does all the
housework at home still. This is very complicated.
3) Something has to give at the end of the day – she had to cut
back hours of work to do the house work. If you have less
wages you have less negotiation power at home. Davies and Carrier (reading)
Test of relative resources. Looks at power relations in CA couples.
How something is measured is going to effect the conclusions.
NOT going to test methodology but need to know
Note the time – 1982.
Quanitative. Does not include childcare as a division of household
labour. This is a main demand on women’s time – emotional. This
will underestimate how much women do
What are their focal variable: main things they are looking