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SOC366H1 (25)


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University of Toronto St. George
Michael Reid

Lecture #9 - Work, Family, and Self: Changing Families, Lagging Ideologies Theoretical Perspectives: Work-Family Interface • Early Ideas: work and family as separate domains ---------> Lag between work structure and demographic change Ideologies and institutions – assumptions about gender is imprinted in organizations – Acker. But now there are hanging demographics – dual earners. They have kids – ideal worker vs. parents Intensification of work – expansion of client-based work. Mass distribution of work mobile technology – boundaries are expanding. Work expanding into the home. Idea is It gives you more flexibility because you don’t have to be at work – but even if you are not at working you are – what are the repercussions of being there or not being there – good for some and bad for some. Can be helpful or problematic – need to respond asap but bathing kid. • Mass Entrance of Women into Paid Work: Spillover Theories 1950s 60s – work was separate from home and were studied separately. Didn’t look at cross-effects. Separate domains late 60s and 70s – change in family form, women enter work Role-Strain • 70s the connection of domains is vital. Looked at psychosomatic outcomes – does work make It tired. • 80s – role strain –social role is important – set of connected behaviours, rights and obligations i.e. parent, husband, supervisor. We take on many roles. Scarcity Hypothesis • We take on social roles and multiple ones in the two domains but we only have scare amount of time and energy to spend doing those roles. Role Conflict • The more social roles one take one – the less time you have to do them the more you feel Role strain or roll conflict. Rise of Work-Family Conflict • ―...a form of inter-role conflict in which the pressures from the work and family domains are mutually incompatible in some respect (Greenhaus and Beutell 1985).‖ Inter-role – social role – 2 roles – in conflict – when they are colliding. Work role is intensified and requires a lot of time and energy – feeds into ability to do other role. • Bi-directional There are work roles impeding into family live, but you also have your family roles going to the direction of the work place. Domains affect real health and mental health. Two domains connecting. Empirical evidence : work to family is more salient then family to work. Social value we place on work role is so pervasive – feel more pressure to perform it correctly than family roles. • Both are associated with physical and psychological well- being – negative impact. • Role-Strain Theory Revisited Scarcity of resources not sufficient to articulate gendered expectations of women in the home • Not just about holding several roles – talk about meanings . Not just logistics of being there but the meanings in the home gets attached to mom and dad and need to look at gender expectations. Not just social meanings coming from society (expectations .e. second shift) but then how actors themselves interpret those meanings. They have filtering systems. People negotiate their identity. Different classes have different access to resources and ability to negotiate identity. • How is meanings differently interpreted by individuals. More sophisticated. The interpretation affects men and work differently. Gendered nature of the workplace (Acker) Moral Division of labour (Gerson) • Not enough to compete in labour market for women – need to achieve the fullest level of themselves – by caring for others. What it means to be a good female. • She looked at the interpretation of young people when they cohabit. Most young people are egalitarian. • People come form single families and dual earners – we expect men and woment to have equal chances at equal things. • How did they see family work demands – how did they divide work and family. • Younger men: thought they would have to revert to traditional labour. Women would end up stay at home. • Women said: they would opt out of marriage and delay the whole thing • Women’s views on how to cope in attempt to compete and attempt to use human capital. They want a good fit in the labour market so they don’t get ‘mommy tracked’. They have consequences of marriage. Women with first child – 31. More human capital. Role Strain V. Role Enhancement • Evidence supports role strain BUT employment also serves positive functions, especially for women With the cultural meaning of roles – another framework looking at multiple social roles and outcomes. Enhancement theories. Employment has positive effect on well-being. Increases physical and mental well-being. • Rise of Role Enhancement Theory energy is an expandable quantity; it is not limited or fixed • Role strain – we have so much energy need to divide. Enhancement: energy is expandable – the more you take on the more you get out the more you can give. The more diversity of experiences you have the more you take into interactional contexts – get more out – positive experiences in the household mediates functions. • Intensive mothering but we also have cultural expectations that women can compete and should compete. This is equitable – if you have what it takes you should do the job. Social culture—women‘s employment is self-fulfilling and increases their financial power • Increases resources. • Fatherhood – positive work outcomes – shows that he is committed. Motherhood – penalty. Gender and Work-Family Conflict • No consistent gender differences in reported levels of work-family conflict How can this be? • Gender distribution of work family conflict – how much does men and women experience. There is no empirical gender difference between the two. Interesting. It is inconsistent – shows both. • How is family and conflict measured – how many hours etc. same problem as measuring unpaid work. • Word ‘interfere might be interpreted to more than women • Women are more willing to cope with – women are culturally expected to carry second shift. Women have been dealing with interference longer – it is more normalized. The interpretation by the actor – how you interpret it. • Consequences of work-family conflict reveal gender differences Gender differences in feelings of guilt (Glavin, Schieman, and Reid 2011) • Look at different outcomes – depression etc. Work family conflict is not the outcome. • Looking at men and women – use work family outcome to a factor that is a mediator. Explanations? • US – use work family conflict as an independent variable and look at different outcomes - look as distress (like anxiety), different than depression and guilt. • To measure work family conflict – boundaries demands – being phoned, texted and emailed – contacted when not at work. Levels were not that different although men felt contacted slightly more. • Outcomes: women report higher levels of GUILT and distress. Men didn’t have guilt. Both men and women had equal levels of work family conflict. • A lot of feminine identity comes from being a caregiver – feels guilty for her primary role as a mother being impeded on. It is greatly internalized. • Guilt is an internally evaluative emotion, female feel it more. • This is NOT about work, family conflict – it is constant. It is the feeling that you are not doing it well. Estimated Number of Regulated Child Care Spaces Canada & Provinces/Territories, 1992 to 2004 Province/Territory 1992 1995 1998 2001 2003/04 % Change 1992 to 2003/04 Newfoundland 3,568 4,202 4,275 4,226 4,921 37.9% Prince Edward Island 4,123 3,888 3,717 4,270 4,100 -0.6% Nova Scotia 10,826 10,645 11,163 11,464 12,759 17.9% New Brunswick 7,162 7,952 9,204 11,086 11,897 66.1% Quebec 78,388 111,452 175,002 234,905 321,732 310.4% Ontario 145,54 147,853 167,090 173,135 206,743 42.0% 5 Manitoba 18,977 18,846 20,490 23,022 25,634 35.1% Saskatchewan 6,418 7,266 7,124 7,166 7,910 23.2% Alberta 51,656 51,088 47,033 47,693 47,959(65,72 -7.2%(27.2%)* 6)* British Columbia 42,927 59,794 68,978
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