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Lecture 14

Lecture 14 Jan 25.docx

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Vanina Leschziner

SOC483Y1 – January 25, 2012 Reading: Paul DiMaggio, “Culture and Cognition,” Annual Review of Sociology 23 (1997): 263-287. - DiMaggio/Powell: while rationalizing may have been effective at some point in history, there is no evidence that its making us more efficient today - so why do we continue to do it?  neo-institutionalism: don’t look at the characteristics of organizations themselves, they are interested in looking at something above an org level - prior: people explained what organizations did and how, by looking at their content and what they do at the organizational level - want to go back to the societal level - Culture as a tool kit – diverse in content (DiMaggio’s approach) - Using different schema in different contexts – given being socialized in different cultures - *Choice and variation Automatic and Cognition Deliberative Cognition (needs motivation) - Occupy Wall Street- 99% under umbrella- all have different problems Lecture - AUTOMATIC VS. DELIBERATIVE (two forms of cognition) DiMaggio uses research from cognitive psychology to talk about these two frames - NATURAL VS. SOCIAL FRAMES - STRUCTURE AND AGENCY Dichotomies AUTOMATIC COGNITION DELIBERATIVE COGNITION NATURAL FRAMES SOCIAL FRAMES STRUCTURE AGENCY - MAY NOT correspond to one another, sometimes maybe but other times no - Just because frames are natural and social, does not mean naturally or socially constructed - D’andrade - Cognitive psychologists think about working through different mental processes- automatic cognition via pattern recognition- link ideas that link together… or go together… we saw this with Rosch things going together and how the idea of prototypes come together (feathers and wings tend to occur so we assume there is one and the other at least if wings then feathers) - Automatic cognition happens through networks more automatically connect them - Go to faculty meetings- if always there- likely to say the names always there, likely to forget someone who doesn’t normally go but likely to say person x was there even though not there in December but she does come all the time= how memory works through automatic patterns = pattern recognition, this is very fast - Deliberative – instead of firing things in networks- it tends to be serial processing- slow and very deliberate thinking- in school learning math - DiMaggio says we need a strong incentive to move from automatic to deliberative - Cognitive economy saves us work! Not a conscious process – but automatically a brain tries to do that – cognitive psychologists say by and large we think automatically but only if we have a strong incentive will we switch to deliberative thinking- IS HOMESICKNESS DELIEBRATIVE OR COGNITION May come in 3 ways moving Difference between attention and motivation- attention you are interested you have to be attracted to whatever is going on while motivation is a stronger and deeper sociological incentive- deeper incentive in motivation 1) Attention – attention because attracted- not just because you are supposed to be – if something too boring you space out… 2) Motivation- something calling you, if interested, calls your attention = more incentive Ex: of subway is good example- walk there automatically through different frames, not away you close your door but sure you did because you do it automatically STRUCTURE – AGENCY – BOURDIEU Habitus – a system that allows us to perceive the world, a system of practices, attitudes, perceptions and cognitive schema - Not that we forget how we acquire a habitus- it may be just that we never really recall, it is unconscious as individuals we never had that awareness - By in large the habitus is automatic – automatic does not mean it is mechanic! – Bourdieu and logics of action – there is room for us to adjust in where we are – people using it strategically (according to DiMaggio) - The notion of the habitus was Bourdieu’s attempt to move beyond structure/agency dichotomy - We can be thinking deliberatively and not be agentic at all – automatic and deliberative refer to two modes of cognition- two modes of how the brain works, not saying anything about the content but may imply acting deliberatively may be motivated but not necessarily more deliberative with a goal to be more deliberative or agentic – oftentimes our brain just switches without us being aware of it 3) The third way to move from automatic to deliberative is “schema failure” – deeper than your road to work- it is a structure of thinking- racial stereotypes are most common (typical case as very deep notions
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