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Lecture 21 March 28.docx

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Vanina Leschziner

Interested in the institutional logic of social relief in American society around the turn of the century – key to understanding this institution is to focus on the mutually constitutive relation between material practices and symbolic constructions. – study public proclamations made about types of work being done by NYC social welfare agencies Quite a number of examples can now be cited of the application of lattice analysis to social phenomena. These studies have usefully demonstrated the virtue of modeling structural dualities in social data, but they have all been employed to assess the order of discrete collections of individuals according to some set of social attributes that partitions them (and, dually, which is partitioned by them). We argue here, however, that structural dualities are a generalized social phenomena and that they are an especially important feature of the sorts of cultural logics that organize complex social institutions. More specifically, our argument is that lattice analysis can provide a formal method for representing the kinds of non-determinative, mutually constitutive relationships that social theorists have suggested exist between symbolic orders and material practices. Practice theorists argue – mutual constitution of material and cultural domains, neither material world (the world of action) nor the cultural world (world of symbols) can exist or be coherently structured independently. Rather both are build up through immediate association with the other. – practice theorists vs. Levi-Strauss – practice theorists find logic of culture embedded in structure of demands of everyday world. Clifford Geertz was an advocate of practice theory, Geertz saw logic of culture located in the patterning of activities that occur in course of daily life, any cultural system was structured as an embodiment of range of activities, social conflicts and moral dilemmas that individuals were compelled to engage with as they went about negotiating everyday events Practical action organized by logic of culture – because Geertz saw all action as meaningful - cock fights rich with meaning expressing broader cultural systems of community existence Self- symbolic, build into deep taken for granted assumption Friedland and Alford- modern societies consist of a number of significant institutional orders (Capitalism family) and each of these institutional orders has a central logic that define as a set of material practices and symbolic constructions which constitutes its organizing principles – emphasize structural duality – buying and selling of commodities proceeds by virtue of shared symbolic constructions including idea of private property Private property only makes sense in context of a commodified world Marriage consists of symbolic notions of love and material practices including making love Concept of structural duality is of interest! - - Ronald Brieger – Simmel pointed out (pg. 311) a crucial part of the identity of any individual is determined by the social groups of which he or she is a member, a defining characteristic of any social group consists of the individuals who are members of that group = led Brieger to look at intergroup network ( collection of groups connected to one another) on basis of shared membership within common groups Individuals vs. groups – entirely different orders of social phenomenon internal structures different, different elements, linkages of the one are constituted by the elements of the other This all means that 1) neither structure has primacy over the other – the two structures are co-equals 2) both structures have autonomous integrity insense each has a coherent patterning according to which its elements are ordered 3) there is a higher order of structure that represents the mapping of the two structures onto one another- this is called translation matrix from which both lower order structures were derivable. It is the higher order structure that fully captures the structural duality of the two orders of social phenomena A lattice provides a procedure for ordering patterns of information and for representing them in a line drawing – Galois - - Freeman and White showed how these lattices make it easy to represent the class of structural relationships, they are able to represent visually the interpersonal network structure, the intergroup structure and the relationship that links these two structures together that were initially described by Breiger – lattice analysis is argued to be used as a new methodological tool for analyzing and representing these types of social network problems called two-mode network data Authors want to bring lattice technology to bear upon more general question of how culture and practice are dually structured in complex institutions Polany poor house system English Pg. 313 for historical accounts of social welfare institutions and their suggestions: 1. Institutional logic of relief composed of – a system of differentiated relief practices (outdoor) and a system of symbolic distinction consisting of various normatively defined categories of the poor 2. These two systems are mutually constitutuive in the sense that changes in one corresponds to and constitutes changes in the other = connecting persons and groups Give institutional logic concrete representation – claim to - Respect the idea, that culture and practice are mutually constituted – - Demonstrates utility of thinking about structural duality as a particular type of empirical relationship that may prove to have a wide variety of practical applications and so demonstrating use of lattices as means of representing these types of empirical linkages - They identify a type of structural arrangement not derivable from intrinsic or systematic coherence of culture (or mind or principle of grammar) rather presume culture is structured through its relation to practice, and that this relationship is dual in that practices are themselves differentiated according to the distinctions of culture Historical distinctions 1893 Henderson – unemployed vs. lazy – industrial revolution - If homeless better to give shelter? - NYC - 1888-1917 - Lattic- matching categories and practices to highlight structural duality Structural Duality - Link between material possessions and social classes = dependent on each other - Material- practices - Macbook = upper middle class can afford - Materialist (practices) vs. idealist (culture) - Mohr proposes no separation between materialist and idealist- can co- exist - There is a duality that happens so much so practice influences culture and culture contributes to action Institution we engage in – reinforce practice of religious culture – getting up on TTC Market economy- engage in practice of private property, exchange goods between each other feed into market economy stressing exchange Friends define who you are – membership but you yourself enforce relationship – duality – can reinforce membership Higher order structure – duality between individual and membership group Central logic- organizing activity within institution Institutional logic- principles allocating classes- first material practices and symbolic constructionist Institutions define categories and individuals = poor houses, constituted what was poor and who was poor – create new categories via these institutions that can be shifted MEANING = PRACTICALITY More complex structure, less consensus Conformity and consensus around definition of being poor – institutional logic – shows consensus – reinforcement of that practice 1888 – economic depression Poverty because of poor environment? Organizational changes? Halfway houses Institutional logic in semi welfare state Some concepts did not change over time- destitute “Fallen” = met with relief of asylum Shift to how you give practices to that definition Use lattice analysis to classify structure Culture structured through practice and practice self according to different cultures Good to combine culture cognition and institutions Stability of institutions but also how things can change Mechanics of change There are obvious connections to this and neo-i
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