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SOC483Y1 Lecture Notes - Industrial Revolution, Constitutive Equation, Georg Simmel

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Vanina Leschziner

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Interested in the institutional logic of social relief in American society around the
turn of the century key to understanding this institution is to focus on the
mutually constitutive relation between material practices and symbolic
constructions. study public proclamations made about types of work being
done by NYC social welfare agencies
Quite a number of examples can now be cited of the application of lattice
analysis to social phenomena. These studies have usefully demonstrated the
virtue of modeling structural dualities in social data, but they have all been
employed to assess the order of discrete collections of individuals according to
some set of social attributes that partitions them (and, dually, which is
partitioned by them). We argue here, however, that structural dualities are a
generalized social phenomena and that they are an especially important feature
of the sorts of cultural logics that organize complex social institutions. More
specifically, our argument is that lattice analysis can provide a formal method for
representing the kinds of non-determinative, mutually constitutive relationships
that social theorists have suggested exist between symbolic orders and material
Practice theorists argue mutual constitution of material and cultural domains,
neither material world (the world of action) nor the cultural world (world of
symbols) can exist or be coherently structured independently. Rather both are
build up through immediate association with the other. practice theorists vs.
Levi-Strauss practice theorists find logic of culture embedded in structure of
demands of everyday world. Clifford Geertz was an advocate of practice theory,
Geertz saw logic of culture located in the patterning of activities that occur in
course of daily life, any cultural system was structured as an embodiment of
range of activities, social conflicts and moral dilemmas that individuals were
compelled to engage with as they went about negotiating everyday events
Practical action organized by logic of culture because Geertz saw all action as
meaningful - cock fights rich with meaning expressing broader cultural systems
of community existence
Self- symbolic, build into deep taken for granted assumption
Friedland and Alford- modern societies consist of a number of significant
institutional orders (Capitalism family) and each of these institutional orders has
a central logic that define as a set of material practices and symbolic
constructions which constitutes its organizing principles emphasize structural

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duality buying and selling of commodities proceeds by virtue of shared
symbolic constructions including idea of private property
Private property only makes sense in context of a commodified world
Marriage consists of symbolic notions of love and material practices including
making love
Concept of structural duality is of interest! - - Ronald Brieger Simmel pointed
out (pg. 311) a crucial part of the identity of any individual is determined by the
social groups of which he or she is a member, a defining characteristic of any
social group consists of the individuals who are members of that group = led
Brieger to look at intergroup network ( collection of groups connected to one
another) on basis of shared membership within common groups
Individuals vs. groups entirely different orders of social phenomenon internal
structures different, different elements, linkages of the one are constituted by the
elements of the other
This all means that 1) neither structure has primacy over the other the two
structures are co-equals
2) both structures have autonomous integrity insense each has a coherent
patterning according to which its elements are ordered
3) there is a higher order of structure that represents the mapping of the two
structures onto one another- this is called
translation matrix
from which both
lower order structures were derivable. It is the higher order structure that fully
captures the structural duality of the two orders of social phenomena
A lattice provides a procedure for ordering patterns of information and for
representing them in a line drawing Galois - - Freeman and White showed how
these lattices make it easy to represent the class of structural relationships, they
are able to represent visually the interpersonal network structure, the intergroup
structure and the relationship that links these two structures together that were
initially described by Breiger lattice analysis is argued to be used as a new
methodological tool for analyzing and representing these types of social network
problems called two-mode network data
Authors want to bring lattice technology to bear upon more general question of
how culture and practice are dually structured in complex institutions

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Polany poor house system English
Pg. 313 for historical accounts of social welfare institutions and their
1. Institutional logic of relief composed of a system of differentiated relief
practices (outdoor) and a system of symbolic distinction consisting of
various normatively defined categories of the poor
2. These two systems are mutually constitutuive in the sense that changes in
one corresponds to and constitutes changes in the other
= connecting persons and groups
Give institutional logic concrete representation claim to
- Respect the idea, that culture and practice are mutually constituted
- Demonstrates utility of thinking about structural duality as a particular
type of empirical relationship that may prove to have a wide variety of
practical applications and so demonstrating use of lattices as means of
representing these types of empirical linkages
- They identify a type of structural arrangement not derivable from
intrinsic or systematic coherence of culture (or mind or principle of
grammar) rather presume culture is structured through its relation to
practice, and that this relationship is dual in that practices are
themselves differentiated according to the distinctions of culture
Historical distinctions
1893 Henderson unemployed vs. lazy industrial revolution
- If homeless better to give shelter?
- 1888-1917
- Lattic- matching categories and practices to highlight structural duality
Structural Duality
- Link between material possessions and social classes = dependent on
each other
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