Class Notes (998,554)
CA (575,638)
UTSG (48,419)
SPA (119)
SPA100Y1 (47)
all (3)
Reference Guide

Spanish Grammar - Reference Guides

4 Pages
1317 Views
Fall 2015
Likes

Department
Spanish
Course Code
SPA100Y1
Professor
all
Chapter
Permachart

This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full 4 pages of the document.
ARTICLES
USAGE
• Accompany (and precede) nouns and their modifiers
• Agree with nouns in number and gender; indicate gender of noun
Type Definite Indefinite
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Masculine el los un unos
Feminine la las una unas
Neutral lo
Contracted al del
• Abstract/generic nouns
(e.g., El amor [love])
• Generic nouns indicating a certain
group/category (e.g., La gente [people])
• Titles (Mr., Mrs., etc.) (e.g., El señor Ed
[Mr. Ed])
• Names of relations
• Names of sports teams
• Names of languages (e.g., Me gusta
el español. [I like Spanish.])
• Days of the week, time expressions
(e.g., Es la una. [It is one o’clock.])
• Numbers, measures, etc.
Generally Not Used
• Address someone directly (e.g., ¿Señor
Gargaro, puede venir aquí?
[Mr. Gargaro, can you come here?])
• Talk about direct relations
• After verbs hablar (to speak),
saber (to know), and aprender (to learn)
• After the preposition en
• Days in dates (number)
Notes: There are exceptions to the rules for
article usage
-al (a + el) and -del (de + el)
(e.g., Fui al cine ayer.
[I went to the movies yesterday.])
CONTRACTIONS
NEUTRAL ARTICLE LO
• Accompanies adjectives, past participles,
and some adverbs
• Usually found at the beginning of
sentences
• The closest English equivalent is things
NOUNS
• Name people, places, things, ideas, feelings, and qualities; vary in gender and number,
as indicated by preceding article
NUMBER
• May be singular or plural
• To form plural, add -s to words that end in a vowel, and -es to words ending in a consonant
(e.g., la casa / las casas [the house / the houses], el tren / los trenes [the train / the trains])
• Mixed gender groups always adopt masculine plural form (e.g., los niños [children; boys &
girls])
• Add -es to plural (except nouns ending in or ); nouns that end in -s (preceded by
non-stressed vowel) do not change
GENDER
• No set rule dictates noun’s gender (masculine or feminine)
• Gender should be learned along with noun’s meaning; however, there are some
common patterns
Masculine Endings
-o, -or, -aje, -ma, -an, -ambre (e.g., el verano)
• There are numerous exceptions (e.g., la moto)
Feminine Endings
-a, -dad, -tud, -ie, -ción, -eza, -sión, -nza,
-umbre, -cia, -ncia (e.g., la casa)
• There are many exceptions (e.g., el dia)
Natural gender: Nouns that have two distinct
male and female forms
Grammatical gender: Some nouns are always
masculine or always feminine
Other Cases
• Some nouns end in -o in masculine form,
and change to -a for feminine (e.g., el niño /
la niña [the boy / the girl])
• In other cases, only the article changes
(e.g., el estudiante / la estudiante
[the student; male or female])
• Some nouns have special endings for the
feminine (e.g., el actor / la actriz
[the actor / the actress])
• Some nouns of either gender apply to males
or females (e.g., la persona [the person])
Spanish Grammar
Spanish Grammar
1SPANISH GRAMMAR 1-55080-569-X © 1999-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc.
TM
permacharts
2nd EDITION
www.permacharts.com
CARDINAL
0: cero 10: diez
1: un(o), una 11: once
2: dos 12: doce
3: tres 13: trece
4: cuatro 14: catorce
5: cinco 15: quince
6: seis 16: dieciséis,
diez y seis
7: siete 17: diecisiete,
diez y siete
8: ocho 18: dieciocho,
diez y ocho
9: nueve 19: diecinueve,
diez y nueve
20: veinte 30: treinta
21: veintiún, 31: treinta y
vientiuno(a), uno(a)
veinte y uno(a)
40: cuarenta 70: setenta
50: cincuenta 80: ochenta
60: sesenta 90: noventa
100: ciento, cien
101: ciento un(o), una
200: doscientos (as)
300: trescientos (as)
400: cuatrocientos (as)
500: quinientos (as)
600: seiscientos (as)
700: setecientos (as)
800: ochocientos (as)
900: novecientos (as)
1000: mil
2000: dos mil
1,000,000: un millón (de)
ORDINAL
1°: primer(o) (1st, first)
2°: segundo (2nd, second)
3°: tercer(o) (3rd, third)
4°: cuarto (4th, fourth)
5°: quinto (5th, fifth)
6°: sexto (6th, sixth)
7°: séptimo (7th, seventh)
8°: octavo (8th, eighth)
9°: noveno, nono (9th, ninth)
10°: décimo (10th, tenth)
NUMBERS

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
After English, Spanish is the most widely spoken language in the Western Hemisphere, and speaking it fluently can often help you understand other languages, like French or Italian. Of course, basic gammar is the cornerstone of speaking any language, so having this reference guide nearby as you learn will be invaluable
More Less
Unlock Document

Only page 1 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

You've reached the limit of 4 previews this month

Create an account for unlimited previews.

Already have an account?

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit