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Reference Guide

Spanish Grammar - Reference Guides

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Course Code

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• Accompany (and precede) nouns and their modifiers
• Agree with nouns in number and gender; indicate gender of noun
Type Definite Indefinite
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Masculine el los un unos
Feminine la las una unas
Neutral lo
Contracted al del
• Abstract/generic nouns
(e.g., El amor [love])
• Generic nouns indicating a certain
group/category (e.g., La gente [people])
• Titles (Mr., Mrs., etc.) (e.g., El señor Ed
[Mr. Ed])
• Names of relations
• Names of sports teams
• Names of languages (e.g., Me gusta
el español. [I like Spanish.])
• Days of the week, time expressions
(e.g., Es la una. [It is one o’clock.])
• Numbers, measures, etc.
Generally Not Used
• Address someone directly (e.g., ¿Señor
Gargaro, puede venir aquí?
[Mr. Gargaro, can you come here?])
• Talk about direct relations
• After verbs hablar (to speak),
saber (to know), and aprender (to learn)
• After the preposition en
• Days in dates (number)
Notes: There are exceptions to the rules for
article usage
-al (a + el) and -del (de + el)
(e.g., Fui al cine ayer.
[I went to the movies yesterday.])
• Accompanies adjectives, past participles,
and some adverbs
• Usually found at the beginning of
• The closest English equivalent is things
• Name people, places, things, ideas, feelings, and qualities; vary in gender and number,
as indicated by preceding article
• May be singular or plural
• To form plural, add -s to words that end in a vowel, and -es to words ending in a consonant
(e.g., la casa / las casas [the house / the houses], el tren / los trenes [the train / the trains])
• Mixed gender groups always adopt masculine plural form (e.g., los niños [children; boys &
• Add -es to plural (except nouns ending in or ); nouns that end in -s (preceded by
non-stressed vowel) do not change
• No set rule dictates noun’s gender (masculine or feminine)
• Gender should be learned along with noun’s meaning; however, there are some
common patterns
Masculine Endings
-o, -or, -aje, -ma, -an, -ambre (e.g., el verano)
• There are numerous exceptions (e.g., la moto)
Feminine Endings
-a, -dad, -tud, -ie, -ción, -eza, -sión, -nza,
-umbre, -cia, -ncia (e.g., la casa)
• There are many exceptions (e.g., el dia)
Natural gender: Nouns that have two distinct
male and female forms
Grammatical gender: Some nouns are always
masculine or always feminine
Other Cases
• Some nouns end in -o in masculine form,
and change to -a for feminine (e.g., el niño /
la niña [the boy / the girl])
• In other cases, only the article changes
(e.g., el estudiante / la estudiante
[the student; male or female])
• Some nouns have special endings for the
feminine (e.g., el actor / la actriz
[the actor / the actress])
• Some nouns of either gender apply to males
or females (e.g., la persona [the person])
Spanish Grammar
Spanish Grammar
1SPANISH GRAMMAR 1-55080-569-X © 1999-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc.
0: cero 10: diez
1: un(o), una 11: once
2: dos 12: doce
3: tres 13: trece
4: cuatro 14: catorce
5: cinco 15: quince
6: seis 16: dieciséis,
diez y seis
7: siete 17: diecisiete,
diez y siete
8: ocho 18: dieciocho,
diez y ocho
9: nueve 19: diecinueve,
diez y nueve
20: veinte 30: treinta
21: veintiún, 31: treinta y
vientiuno(a), uno(a)
veinte y uno(a)
40: cuarenta 70: setenta
50: cincuenta 80: ochenta
60: sesenta 90: noventa
100: ciento, cien
101: ciento un(o), una
200: doscientos (as)
300: trescientos (as)
400: cuatrocientos (as)
500: quinientos (as)
600: seiscientos (as)
700: setecientos (as)
800: ochocientos (as)
900: novecientos (as)
1000: mil
2000: dos mil
1,000,000: un millón (de)
1°: primer(o) (1st, first)
2°: segundo (2nd, second)
3°: tercer(o) (3rd, third)
4°: cuarto (4th, fourth)
5°: quinto (5th, fifth)
6°: sexto (6th, sixth)
7°: séptimo (7th, seventh)
8°: octavo (8th, eighth)
9°: noveno, nono (9th, ninth)
10°: décimo (10th, tenth)
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