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Reference Guide

Spanish Grammar - Reference Guides

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• Accompany (and precede) nouns and their modifiers
• Agree with nouns in number and gender; indicate gender of noun
Type Definite Indefinite
Singular Plural Singular Plural
Masculine el los un unos
Feminine la las una unas
Neutral lo
Contracted al del
• Abstract/generic nouns
(e.g., El amor [love])
• Generic nouns indicating a certain
group/category (e.g., La gente [people])
• Titles (Mr., Mrs., etc.) (e.g., El señor Ed
[Mr. Ed])
• Names of relations
• Names of sports teams
• Names of languages (e.g., Me gusta
el español. [I like Spanish.])
• Days of the week, time expressions
(e.g., Es la una. [It is one o’clock.])
• Numbers, measures, etc.
Generally Not Used
• Address someone directly (e.g., ¿Señor
Gargaro, puede venir aquí?
[Mr. Gargaro, can you come here?])
• Talk about direct relations
• After verbs hablar (to speak),
saber (to know), and aprender (to learn)
• After the preposition en
• Days in dates (number)
Notes: There are exceptions to the rules for
article usage
-al (a + el) and -del (de + el)
(e.g., Fui al cine ayer.
[I went to the movies yesterday.])
• Accompanies adjectives, past participles,
and some adverbs
• Usually found at the beginning of
• The closest English equivalent is things
• Name people, places, things, ideas, feelings, and qualities; vary in gender and number,
as indicated by preceding article
• May be singular or plural
• To form plural, add -s to words that end in a vowel, and -es to words ending in a consonant
(e.g., la casa / las casas [the house / the houses], el tren / los trenes [the train / the trains])
• Mixed gender groups always adopt masculine plural form (e.g., los niños [children; boys &
• Add -es to plural (except nouns ending in or ); nouns that end in -s (preceded by
non-stressed vowel) do not change
• No set rule dictates noun’s gender (masculine or feminine)
• Gender should be learned along with noun’s meaning; however, there are some
common patterns
Masculine Endings
-o, -or, -aje, -ma, -an, -ambre (e.g., el verano)
• There are numerous exceptions (e.g., la moto)
Feminine Endings
-a, -dad, -tud, -ie, -ción, -eza, -sión, -nza,
-umbre, -cia, -ncia (e.g., la casa)
• There are many exceptions (e.g., el dia)
Natural gender: Nouns that have two distinct
male and female forms
Grammatical gender: Some nouns are always
masculine or always feminine
Other Cases
• Some nouns end in -o in masculine form,
and change to -a for feminine (e.g., el niño /
la niña [the boy / the girl])
• In other cases, only the article changes
(e.g., el estudiante / la estudiante
[the student; male or female])
• Some nouns have special endings for the
feminine (e.g., el actor / la actriz
[the actor / the actress])
• Some nouns of either gender apply to males
or females (e.g., la persona [the person])
Spanish Grammar
Spanish Grammar
1SPANISH GRAMMAR 1-55080-569-X © 1999-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc.
0: cero 10: diez
1: un(o), una 11: once
2: dos 12: doce
3: tres 13: trece
4: cuatro 14: catorce
5: cinco 15: quince
6: seis 16: dieciséis,
diez y seis
7: siete 17: diecisiete,
diez y siete
8: ocho 18: dieciocho,
diez y ocho
9: nueve 19: diecinueve,
diez y nueve
20: veinte 30: treinta
21: veintiún, 31: treinta y
vientiuno(a), uno(a)
veinte y uno(a)
40: cuarenta 70: setenta
50: cincuenta 80: ochenta
60: sesenta 90: noventa
100: ciento, cien
101: ciento un(o), una
200: doscientos (as)
300: trescientos (as)
400: cuatrocientos (as)
500: quinientos (as)
600: seiscientos (as)
700: setecientos (as)
800: ochocientos (as)
900: novecientos (as)
1000: mil
2000: dos mil
1,000,000: un millón (de)
1°: primer(o) (1st, first)
2°: segundo (2nd, second)
3°: tercer(o) (3rd, third)
4°: cuarto (4th, fourth)
5°: quinto (5th, fifth)
6°: sexto (6th, sixth)
7°: séptimo (7th, seventh)
8°: octavo (8th, eighth)
9°: noveno, nono (9th, ninth)
10°: décimo (10th, tenth)

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After English, Spanish is the most widely spoken language in the Western Hemisphere, and speaking it fluently can often help you understand other languages, like French or Italian. Of course, basic gammar is the cornerstone of speaking any language, so having this reference guide nearby as you learn will be invaluable
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