Spanish Verbs - Reference Guides

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Published on 5 Jun 2015
School
UTSG
Department
Spanish
Course
SPA100Y1
Professor
INTRODUCTION
• A verb is an action word that
describes an action or a state
• Spanish word order is similar to
English word order; however, the
subject of a sentence can either
precede or follow the verb
• Usually, the most significant word
begins the sentence
• Any part of a clause can be placed
at the start of a sentence;
no words can come between a
participle and an auxiliary verb
• Adverbs and adverbial phrases
must be placed either before or
after the word being modified
(this word may be the verb)
NUMBER & PERSON: SUBJECT
PRONOUNS
1st yo (I) nosotros/as (we)
2nd (you) vosostros/as (you)
3rd él (he) ellos (they)
ella (she) ellas (they)
usted (you; ustedes (you;
formal) formal)
THREE TYPES OF VERBS: -AR, -ER, -IR
• Infinitive endings are dropped;
appropriate endings are added
-ar: amar [to love], hablar [to
speak], llorar [to cry]
-er: temer [to fear], beber [to drink]
-ir: vivir [to live], partir [to leave]
2Spanish Verbs 3Spanish Verbs
FUTURE TENSE cont.
IRREGULAR VERBS
• Verbs that add -d to the root: tener (to have), venir
(to come), poner (to put), salir (to go out)
• Verbs that drop the -e from the root: saber (to
know), poder (to be able to), haber (to have),
caber (to fit)
• Verbs that have completely irregular forms: decir
(to say), hacer (to make), querer (to want)
IR + A + INFINITIVE
• Used interchangeably with a conjugated future
tense form
Example: Voy a hablar con él. (I’m going to speak
to him.)
PAST TENSE cont.
• Describes places, objects, and people in the past
(e.g., El hombre era alto, tenía ojos azules y
llevaba gafas. [The man was tall, had blue eyes,
and wore glasses.])
• Used in formal questions and requests (e.g., Por
favor, quería probarme esta falda. [Excuse me, I
wanted to try this dress.])
• Replaces preterite in written style (e.g., A las dos
de la tarde atracaban el banco y media hora
después la policía detenía a los atracadores. [At
two in the afternoon, the bank was raided, and
half an hour later the police arrested the raiders.])
IMPERFECT INDICATIVE CONJUGATION OF REGULAR
VERBS
IRREGULAR CONJUGATIONS
• The only two irregular verbs in imperfect tense
are ser (to be) and ir (to go)
Example: ser Æera • ir Æiba
Ver (to see) keeps the e from the infinitive ending
Example: ver Æveía
IMPERFECT CONTINUOUS
• Formed with imperfect of
estar and the gerund
(-ing is the English
equivalent)
• Emphasizes that an activity was
in progress when something
else happened
• Stylistic change; it can be implied
through imperfect
PAST TENSE
PRETERITE (PAST TENSE)
Preterite means gone by, over, or past
• Used to record actions that began (and concluded)
in the past; describes an action that is a completed
unit, reporting that it already took place at a fixed
point in the past (e.g., Estuve un mes en Madrid. [I
was in Madrid for a month.])
• Used to describe the start of an action that began
in the past (e.g., Empezó a trabajar el año pasado.
[He began to work last year.])
• May be accompanied by a specific expression of
time or an adverb, like ayer (yesterday) and el año
pasado (last year)
• Remove infinitive endings and add preterite endings
• Three irregular verbs in the preterite have different
forms and do not follow regular conjugation rules
Dar (to give) is conjugated like an -er or -ir verb
(di); ser (to be) and ir (to go) both have the same
preterite root (fui)
PRETERITE INDICATIVE CONJUGATION OF REGULAR
VERBS
IRREGULAR CONJUGATIONS
• There are five main groups of irregularly
conjugated past tense verbs; they are sometimes
referred to as strong preterites
• Verbs that change root vowel to -u (e.g., poder [to
be able], saber [to know])
• Verbs that change the root vowel to -i (e.g., hacer
[to do, to make], venir [to come])
• Verbs that add -uv at the end of the root (e.g.,
estar [to be], andar [to walk])
• Verbs that add the consonant -j (e.g., decir [to
speak], conducir [to drive])
• 3 verbs that are very different; dar (to give) is like
an -er or -ir verb, while ser and ir have fui as their
preterite (root changes)
• With irregular preterites, the root is stressed; with
regular preterites, the ending is stressed
IMPERFECT
Imperfect past tense is pictorial past tense; depicts
a past action in progress
• Recalls what once was; it can set the background
for an act that was performed in the past
• Does not give any information regarding beginning
or end of past action, as it may not be finished or
the speaker may not be interested in that aspect of
the action
• Remove infinitive endings and add imperfect
conjugation
• Expresses duration with adverb
antes (before) (e.g., Antes vivía en
Madrid. [Before, I lived in Madrid.])
• Describes an habitual action in
the past (i.e., used to) that was
carried out a number of times
(e.g., Todos los días se
bañaba a las ocho. [Every
day, he used to shower at
8 o’clock.])
INTRODUCTION cont.
MOODS
• A verb’s mood expresses the attitude of the speaker about
what is being said
• The indicative mood is used to state a fact
• Includes present, preterite, imperfect, future, and conditional
(all indicative)
Example: Voy al cine. (I go to the movies.)
• The subjunctive mood is used to express a wish, doubt or
possibility
• Includes subjunctive present, subjunctive imperfect (type 1 [-ra
endings] is used in Latin America; type 2 [-se endings] is used
in Spain), and subjunctive future
Example: Quiero que vayas al cine. (I want you to go to the movies.)
TENSES
• The tense of a verb indicates whether action takes place in the
past, present or future; there are different forms and moods
• Tenses include the infinitive, past, present, imperfect, present
perfect, pluperfect, future, conditional, and imperative
• Tenses are formed by dropping infinitive endings (-ar, -er, -ir)
according to person and number, and then adding new endings
Types of Tenses
A simple tense consists of one word (e.g., hablaron [they spoke])
• A compound tense consists of two or more words; formed with
auxiliary haber + past participle (e.g., he hablado [I have
spoken])
MODAL VERBS
Modal verbs are used with other verbs to express difference
between a possibility and an actuality (i.e., may vs. can)
• Express intentions or opinions
• Indicate the subject’s attitude toward the action; they can be
used in all tenses
deber: should, ought, must
querer: to want to, will, would like
soler: usually, be used to
saber: to know, know how to, be able
poder: to be able to, can, could, may, might
FUTURE TENSE
© 2006-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc. © 2006-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc.© 2006-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc.
After English, Spanish is the most widely
spoken language in the Western Hemi-
sphere, and speaking it fluently can often
help you understand other languages like
French or Italian. Of course, proper use of
verbs is fundamental to speaking any lan-
guage, so having this reference guide nearby
as you learn will be invaluable.
Main Conjugations
Infinitive:
-ar -er -ir
amar temer partir
(to love) (to fear) (to leave)
Gerund:
-ar -er -ir
amando temiendo partiendo
Participle:
-ar -er -ir
amado temido partido
PERFECT TENSE
Compound (or perfect) tenses consist of auxiliary
verb haber (to have) and past participle that follows
• Deal with completed actions (perfect comes from
Latin perfectum, meaning completed)
Haber indicates when action was completed
PLUPERFECT
• Known as past perfect
• Formed by the imperfect form of haber followed
by a past participle
Example: Pepe había salido. (Pepe had gone out.)
PRESENT PERFECT
• Formed with present of
haber followed by past
participle
• States that, as of now,
action is complete
Example: Pepe ha salido.
(Pepe has gone
out.)
FUTURE PERFECT
• Formed by future of
haber followed by past
participle
• Reflects a future action in relation to another
future action (will have done)
Example: Cuando lleguen al cine ya habré sacado
las entradas. (By the time they arrive at the
cinema, I will have bought the tickets.)
PRESENT PERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE
• Formed by present subjunctive of haber followed
by past participle
Example: Siento que no lo hayas hecho. (I am
sorry that you have not done it.)
PAST CONDITIONAL
• Formed by conditional of haber followed by
past participle
Example: Dijo que cuando terminara sus
estudios ya habría encontrado trabajo. (He said
that when he finished his studies he would have
already found work.)
PLUPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE
• Formed by imperfect subjunctive of haber
followed by past participle
Example: Si hubiera estudiado habría
aprobado. (If she had studied, she would have
passed.)
-ar amé amaste amó
-er temí temiste temió
-ir partí partiste partió
-ar amamos amasteis amaron
-er temimos temisteis temieron
-ir partimos partisteis partieron
Singular 1st 2nd 3rd
Plural 1st 2nd 3rd
-ar amaba amabas amaba
-er temía temías temía
-ir partía partías partía
-ar amábamos amabais amaban
-er temíamos temíais temían
-ir partíamos partíais partían
Singular 1st 2nd 3rd
Plural 1st 2nd 3rd
UPCOMING PROJECTS/EXAMS
Use this space to record your
upcoming projects /exams using
water markers. You can then wipe
them off and reuse it next semester
DATE TIME/ROOM# PROJECT/TEST NOTES
www.permacharts.com
Spanish Verbs
Spanish Verbs
• The future tense is used to express an action that has not
happened yet
• Expresses an action or sense of probability (e.g., Serán las dos.
[It is probably two o’clock.])
• May have an imperative meaning that implies a promise (e.g., No
te preocupes, irás a la fiesta. [Don’t worry, you’ll go to the party.])
CONJUGATION
• Only one set of endings for all three conjugations
(-ar, -er, -ir); endings are added to whole infinitive
1st 2nd 3rd
Singular -ás -á
Plural -emos -éis -án
TM
permacharts
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INTRODUCTION
• A verb is an action word that
describes an action or a state
• Spanish word order is similar to
English word order; however, the
subject of a sentence can either
precede or follow the verb
• Usually, the most significant word
begins the sentence
• Any part of a clause can be placed
at the start of a sentence;
no words can come between a
participle and an auxiliary verb
• Adverbs and adverbial phrases
must be placed either before or
after the word being modified
(this word may be the verb)
NUMBER & PERSON: SUBJECT
PRONOUNS
1st yo (I) nosotros/as (we)
2nd (you) vosostros/as (you)
3rd él (he) ellos (they)
ella (she) ellas (they)
usted (you; ustedes (you;
formal) formal)
THREE TYPES OF VERBS: -AR, -ER, -IR
• Infinitive endings are dropped;
appropriate endings are added
-ar: amar [to love], hablar [to
speak], llorar [to cry]
-er: temer [to fear], beber [to drink]
-ir: vivir [to live], partir [to leave]
2Spanish Verbs 3Spanish Verbs
FUTURE TENSE cont.
IRREGULAR VERBS
• Verbs that add -d to the root: tener (to have), venir
(to come), poner (to put), salir (to go out)
• Verbs that drop the -e from the root: saber (to
know), poder (to be able to), haber (to have),
caber (to fit)
• Verbs that have completely irregular forms: decir
(to say), hacer (to make), querer (to want)
IR + A + INFINITIVE
• Used interchangeably with a conjugated future
tense form
Example: Voy a hablar con él. (I’m going to speak
to him.)
PAST TENSE cont.
• Describes places, objects, and people in the past
(e.g., El hombre era alto, tenía ojos azules y
llevaba gafas. [The man was tall, had blue eyes,
and wore glasses.])
• Used in formal questions and requests (e.g., Por
favor, quería probarme esta falda. [Excuse me, I
wanted to try this dress.])
• Replaces preterite in written style (e.g., A las dos
de la tarde atracaban el banco y media hora
después la policía detenía a los atracadores. [At
two in the afternoon, the bank was raided, and
half an hour later the police arrested the raiders.])
IMPERFECT INDICATIVE CONJUGATION OF REGULAR
VERBS
IRREGULAR CONJUGATIONS
• The only two irregular verbs in imperfect tense
are ser (to be) and ir (to go)
Example: ser Æera • ir Æiba
Ver (to see) keeps the e from the infinitive ending
Example: ver Æveía
IMPERFECT CONTINUOUS
• Formed with imperfect of
estar and the gerund
(-ing is the English
equivalent)
• Emphasizes that an activity was
in progress when something
else happened
• Stylistic change; it can be implied
through imperfect
PAST TENSE
PRETERITE (PAST TENSE)
Preterite means gone by, over, or past
• Used to record actions that began (and concluded)
in the past; describes an action that is a completed
unit, reporting that it already took place at a fixed
point in the past (e.g., Estuve un mes en Madrid. [I
was in Madrid for a month.])
• Used to describe the start of an action that began
in the past (e.g., Empezó a trabajar el año pasado.
[He began to work last year.])
• May be accompanied by a specific expression of
time or an adverb, like ayer (yesterday) and el año
pasado (last year)
• Remove infinitive endings and add preterite endings
• Three irregular verbs in the preterite have different
forms and do not follow regular conjugation rules
Dar (to give) is conjugated like an -er or -ir verb
(di); ser (to be) and ir (to go) both have the same
preterite root (fui)
PRETERITE INDICATIVE CONJUGATION OF REGULAR
VERBS
IRREGULAR CONJUGATIONS
• There are five main groups of irregularly
conjugated past tense verbs; they are sometimes
referred to as strong preterites
• Verbs that change root vowel to -u (e.g., poder [to
be able], saber [to know])
• Verbs that change the root vowel to -i (e.g., hacer
[to do, to make], venir [to come])
• Verbs that add -uv at the end of the root (e.g.,
estar [to be], andar [to walk])
• Verbs that add the consonant -j (e.g., decir [to
speak], conducir [to drive])
• 3 verbs that are very different; dar (to give) is like
an -er or -ir verb, while ser and ir have fui as their
preterite (root changes)
• With irregular preterites, the root is stressed; with
regular preterites, the ending is stressed
IMPERFECT
Imperfect past tense is pictorial past tense; depicts
a past action in progress
• Recalls what once was; it can set the background
for an act that was performed in the past
• Does not give any information regarding beginning
or end of past action, as it may not be finished or
the speaker may not be interested in that aspect of
the action
• Remove infinitive endings and add imperfect
conjugation
• Expresses duration with adverb
antes (before) (e.g., Antes vivía en
Madrid. [Before, I lived in Madrid.])
• Describes an habitual action in
the past (i.e., used to) that was
carried out a number of times
(e.g., Todos los días se
bañaba a las ocho. [Every
day, he used to shower at
8 o’clock.])
INTRODUCTION cont.
MOODS
• A verb’s mood expresses the attitude of the speaker about
what is being said
• The indicative mood is used to state a fact
• Includes present, preterite, imperfect, future, and conditional
(all indicative)
Example: Voy al cine. (I go to the movies.)
• The subjunctive mood is used to express a wish, doubt or
possibility
• Includes subjunctive present, subjunctive imperfect (type 1 [-ra
endings] is used in Latin America; type 2 [-se endings] is used
in Spain), and subjunctive future
Example: Quiero que vayas al cine. (I want you to go to the movies.)
TENSES
• The tense of a verb indicates whether action takes place in the
past, present or future; there are different forms and moods
• Tenses include the infinitive, past, present, imperfect, present
perfect, pluperfect, future, conditional, and imperative
• Tenses are formed by dropping infinitive endings (-ar, -er, -ir)
according to person and number, and then adding new endings
Types of Tenses
A simple tense consists of one word (e.g., hablaron [they spoke])
• A compound tense consists of two or more words; formed with
auxiliary haber + past participle (e.g., he hablado [I have
spoken])
MODAL VERBS
Modal verbs are used with other verbs to express difference
between a possibility and an actuality (i.e., may vs. can)
• Express intentions or opinions
• Indicate the subject’s attitude toward the action; they can be
used in all tenses
deber: should, ought, must
querer: to want to, will, would like
soler: usually, be used to
saber: to know, know how to, be able
poder: to be able to, can, could, may, might
FUTURE TENSE
© 2006-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc. © 2006-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc.© 2006-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc.
After English, Spanish is the most widely
spoken language in the Western Hemi-
sphere, and speaking it fluently can often
help you understand other languages like
French or Italian. Of course, proper use of
verbs is fundamental to speaking any lan-
guage, so having this reference guide nearby
as you learn will be invaluable.
Main Conjugations
Infinitive:
-ar -er -ir
amar temer partir
(to love) (to fear) (to leave)
Gerund:
-ar -er -ir
amando temiendo partiendo
Participle:
-ar -er -ir
amado temido partido
PERFECT TENSE
Compound (or perfect) tenses consist of auxiliary
verb haber (to have) and past participle that follows
• Deal with completed actions (perfect comes from
Latin perfectum, meaning completed)
Haber indicates when action was completed
PLUPERFECT
• Known as past perfect
• Formed by the imperfect form of haber followed
by a past participle
Example: Pepe había salido. (Pepe had gone out.)
PRESENT PERFECT
• Formed with present of
haber followed by past
participle
• States that, as of now,
action is complete
Example: Pepe ha salido.
(Pepe has gone
out.)
FUTURE PERFECT
• Formed by future of
haber followed by past
participle
• Reflects a future action in relation to another
future action (will have done)
Example: Cuando lleguen al cine ya habré sacado
las entradas. (By the time they arrive at the
cinema, I will have bought the tickets.)
PRESENT PERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE
• Formed by present subjunctive of haber followed
by past participle
Example: Siento que no lo hayas hecho. (I am
sorry that you have not done it.)
PAST CONDITIONAL
• Formed by conditional of haber followed by
past participle
Example: Dijo que cuando terminara sus
estudios ya habría encontrado trabajo. (He said
that when he finished his studies he would have
already found work.)
PLUPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE
• Formed by imperfect subjunctive of haber
followed by past participle
Example: Si hubiera estudiado habría
aprobado. (If she had studied, she would have
passed.)
-ar amé amaste amó
-er temí temiste temió
-ir partí partiste partió
-ar amamos amasteis amaron
-er temimos temisteis temieron
-ir partimos partisteis partieron
Singular 1st 2nd 3rd
Plural 1st 2nd 3rd
-ar amaba amabas amaba
-er temía temías temía
-ir partía partías partía
-ar amábamos amabais amaban
-er temíamos temíais temían
-ir partíamos partíais partían
Singular 1st 2nd 3rd
Plural 1st 2nd 3rd
UPCOMING PROJECTS/EXAMS
Use this space to record your
upcoming projects /exams using
water markers. You can then wipe
them off and reuse it next semester
DATE TIME/ROOM# PROJECT/TEST NOTES
www.permacharts.com
Spanish Verbs
Spanish Verbs
• The future tense is used to express an action that has not
happened yet
• Expresses an action or sense of probability (e.g., Serán las dos.
[It is probably two o’clock.])
• May have an imperative meaning that implies a promise (e.g., No
te preocupes, irás a la fiesta. [Don’t worry, you’ll go to the party.])
CONJUGATION
• Only one set of endings for all three conjugations
(-ar, -er, -ir); endings are added to whole infinitive
1st 2nd 3rd
Singular -ás -á
Plural -emos -éis -án
TM
permacharts
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 6 pages and 3 million more documents.

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Document Summary

After english, spanish is the most widely spoken language in the western hemi- sphere, and speaking it fluently can often help you understand other languages like. Of course, proper use of verbs is fundamental to speaking any lan- guage, so having this reference guide nearby as you learn will be invaluable. Introduction: a verb is an action word that describes an action or a state, spanish word order is similar to. 3rd l (he) ella (she) usted (you; ustedes (you; formal) formal) vosostros/as (you) ellos (they) ellas (they) Three types of verbs: -ar, -er, -ir: infinitive endings are dropped; appropriate endings are added. Ar: amar [to love], hablar [to speak], llorar [to cry] Moods: a verb"s mood expresses the attitude of the speaker about what is being said, the indicative mood is used to state a fact, includes present, preterite, imperfect, future, and conditional (all indicative) Example: quiero que vayas al cine. (i want you to go to the movies. )

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