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Reference Guide

Spanish Verbs & Grammar - Reference Guides

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2Spanish Verbs & Grammar 3Spanish Verbs & Grammar
ADJECTIVES
• Words that describe nouns
Agreement: Adjectives agree in gender and
number with nouns they describe
Masculine ending is -o; feminine ending is -a
• Adjectives ending in -e or a consonant agree only
in number
• For agreement in number, add -s after a vowel and
add -es after a consonant
POSITION
Usually follow a noun
When an adjective precedes a noun, the meaning
changes (e.g., ¡Pobre hombre! -Poor man! Es un
hombre pobre. -He is a poor [without riches] man)
• If a masculine adjective precedes a noun, the form
is shortened (e.g., una casa grande / una gran casa)
• Feminine adjective remains the same (e.g., una
casa santa / una santa casa)
VERBS
• A verb denotes an action or a state
• Main verb tenses include present, past, imperfect,
present perfect, pluperfect, future and conditional;
there are 2 moods (indicative and subjunctive)
• Infinitive is the standard form used to identify any
verb: -ar, -er, -ir
-ar: amar (to love)
-er: beber (to drink)
-ir: vivir (to live)
FORMATION OF GERUNDS AND PARTICIPLES
TENSES
• The tense of a verb indicates whether action takes
place in the past, present or future; there are
different forms and moods
• Tenses include the present, past, imperfect, present
perfect, pluperfect, future and conditional
• Tenses are formed by dropping infinitive endings
(-ar, -er, -ir) and then adding new endings
according to person and number
MOODS
• A verb’s mood expresses the attitude of the
speaker about what is being said
• The indicative mood is used to state a fact
mIncludes present, preterite, imperfect, future, and
conditional (all indicative)
• The subjunctive mood is used to express a wish,
doubt or possibility
mIncludes subjunctive present, subjunctive
imperfect
FUTURE TENSE
• The future tense is used to express an action that
has not happened yet
• Expresses an action or sense of probability (e.g.,
Serán las dos. -It is probably two o’clock.)
• May have an imperative meaning that implies a
promise (e.g., Irás a la fiesta. -Don’t worry, you’ll
go to the party.)
IRREGULAR VERBS
• Verbs that add -d to the root: tener tendr- (to
have), venirvendr- (to come), ponerpondr-
(to put), salirsaldr- (to go out)
• Verbs that drop the -e from the root:
sabersabr- (to know), poderpodr- (to be able
to), haberhabr- (to have), cabercabr- (to fit)
• Verbs that have completely irregular forms:
decirdir- (to say), hacerhar- (to make),
querer querr-(to want)
CONJUGATION
• Only one set of endings for all three conjugations
(-ar, -er, -ir); endings are added to whole infinitive
CONDITIONAL
• Expresses would/could do something (e.g., Dijiste
que escribirías. -You said you would write.)
• Expresses uncertainty and probability in the past
• Used in hypothetical sentences (if ... would
constructions) and polite
questions or requests
IRREGULAR VERBS
• Same irregularities as the future tense
(see Future Tense)
CONJUGATION
• The stem (like the future) is the whole infinitive
• Conditional endings are the same as imperfect
tense endings of -er and -ir
ARTICLES
Accompany (and precede) nouns and their modifiers
• Agree with nouns in number and gender; indicate gender of
noun
© 2006-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc. © 2006-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc.© 2006-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc.
After English, Spanish is the most
widely spoken language in the
Western Hemisphere, and speaking it
fluently can often help you understand
other languages like French or Italian.
Of course, basic verbs and grammar are
the cornerstones of speaking any lan-
guage, so having this reference guide
nearby as you learn will be invaluable.
SPANISH
VERBS & GRAMMAR Masculine el los un unos
Feminine la las una unas
Definite Indefinite
Singular Plural Singular Plural
NOUNS
• Name people, places, things, ideas, feelings, and qualities; vary
in number and gender, as indicated by preceding article
NUMBER
• May be singular or plural
• To form plural, add -s to words that end in a vowel, and -es to
words ending in a consonant (e.g., la casa / las casas, el tren /
los trenes)
• Mixed gender groups always adopt masculine plural form (e.g.,
los niños -children; boys & girls)
GENDER
• No set rule dictates noun’s gender (masculine or feminine)
• Gender should be learned along with noun’s meaning;
however, there are some common patterns
Masculine Endings
-o, -l, and -r (e.g., el verano)
• There are numerous exceptions (e.g., la moto)
Feminine Endings
-a, -ción, -sión, -umbre, (e.g., la casa)
• There are many exceptions (e.g., el día)
Other Cases
• Some nouns end in -o in masculine form, and change to -a for
feminine (e.g., el niño / la niña)
• In other cases, only the article changes (e.g., el estudiante / la
estudiante -male or female student)
• Some nouns have special endings for the feminine (e.g., el
actor / la actriz -actor/actress)
• Some nouns of either gender apply to males or females
(e.g., la persona -the person)
Gerund -ar -er -ir
amando bebiendo viviendo
Participle -ar -er -ir
amado bebido vivido
PRESENT TENSE
The present tense is used to describe an action or
state that is occurring at the moment; it can also
express everyday habits or actions that have no
specific time limit
Examples: Hablo inglés. (I speak English. / I do
speak English. / I am speaking English.)
• When English requires an additional verb,
Spanish does not
Ej: No habla inglés. (He does not speak English.)
INDICATIVE PRESENT
FORMING QUESTIONS
1. Questions in Spanish begin with an inverted question mark (¿)
and close with a regular question mark (?)
2. Intontation (raised at end)
3. Placing predicate in front of subject (e.g., ¿Habla usted
inglés? -Do you speak English?)
4. Adding no, verdad or no es verdad to end of sentence
INTERROGATIVE WORDS
qué: what cómo: how
por qué: why quién: who
dónde: where cuál: which
de quién: whose cuándo: when
cuánto: how much cuántos: how many
para qué: what for
-ar (amar)
-er (beber)
-ir (vivir)
amoamamos
amas amáis
amaaman
bebobebemos
bebes bebéis
bebebeben
vivovivimos
vives vivís
viveviven
-ar
-er
-ir
hablaréhablaremos
hablarás hablaréis
hablaráhablarán
beberébeberemos
beberás beberéis
beberábeberán
viviréviviremos
vivirás viviréis
vivirávivirán
-ar
-er
-ir
hablaría hablaríamos
hablarías hablaríais
hablaría hablarían
bebería beberíamos
beberías beberíais
bebería beberían
viviría viviríamos
vivirías viviríais
viviría vivirían
TM
permacharts
www.permacharts.com
2Spanish Verbs & Grammar 3Spanish Verbs & Grammar
ADJECTIVES
• Words that describe nouns
Agreement: Adjectives agree in gender and
number with nouns they describe
Masculine ending is -o; feminine ending is -a
• Adjectives ending in -e or a consonant agree only
in number
• For agreement in number, add -s after a vowel and
add -es after a consonant
POSITION
Usually follow a noun
When an adjective precedes a noun, the meaning
changes (e.g., ¡Pobre hombre! -Poor man! Es un
hombre pobre. -He is a poor [without riches] man)
• If a masculine adjective precedes a noun, the form
is shortened (e.g., una casa grande / una gran casa)
• Feminine adjective remains the same (e.g., una
casa santa / una santa casa)
VERBS
• A verb denotes an action or a state
• Main verb tenses include present, past, imperfect,
present perfect, pluperfect, future and conditional;
there are 2 moods (indicative and subjunctive)
• Infinitive is the standard form used to identify any
verb: -ar, -er, -ir
-ar: amar (to love)
-er: beber (to drink)
-ir: vivir (to live)
FORMATION OF GERUNDS AND PARTICIPLES
TENSES
• The tense of a verb indicates whether action takes
place in the past, present or future; there are
different forms and moods
• Tenses include the present, past, imperfect, present
perfect, pluperfect, future and conditional
• Tenses are formed by dropping infinitive endings
(-ar, -er, -ir) and then adding new endings
according to person and number
MOODS
• A verb’s mood expresses the attitude of the
speaker about what is being said
• The indicative mood is used to state a fact
mIncludes present, preterite, imperfect, future, and
conditional (all indicative)
• The subjunctive mood is used to express a wish,
doubt or possibility
mIncludes subjunctive present, subjunctive
imperfect
FUTURE TENSE
• The future tense is used to express an action that
has not happened yet
• Expresses an action or sense of probability (e.g.,
Serán las dos. -It is probably two o’clock.)
• May have an imperative meaning that implies a
promise (e.g., Irás a la fiesta. -Don’t worry, you’ll
go to the party.)
IRREGULAR VERBS
• Verbs that add -d to the root: tener tendr- (to
have), venirvendr- (to come), ponerpondr-
(to put), salirsaldr- (to go out)
• Verbs that drop the -e from the root:
sabersabr- (to know), poderpodr- (to be able
to), haberhabr- (to have), cabercabr- (to fit)
• Verbs that have completely irregular forms:
decirdir- (to say), hacerhar- (to make),
querer querr-(to want)
CONJUGATION
• Only one set of endings for all three conjugations
(-ar, -er, -ir); endings are added to whole infinitive
CONDITIONAL
• Expresses would/could do something (e.g., Dijiste
que escribirías. -You said you would write.)
• Expresses uncertainty and probability in the past
• Used in hypothetical sentences (if ... would
constructions) and polite
questions or requests
IRREGULAR VERBS
• Same irregularities as the future tense
(see Future Tense)
CONJUGATION
• The stem (like the future) is the whole infinitive
• Conditional endings are the same as imperfect
tense endings of -er and -ir
ARTICLES
Accompany (and precede) nouns and their modifiers
• Agree with nouns in number and gender; indicate gender of
noun
© 2006-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc. © 2006-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc.© 2006-2012 Mindsource Technologies Inc.
After English, Spanish is the most
widely spoken language in the
Western Hemisphere, and speaking it
fluently can often help you understand
other languages like French or Italian.
Of course, basic verbs and grammar are
the cornerstones of speaking any lan-
guage, so having this reference guide
nearby as you learn will be invaluable.
SPANISH
VERBS & GRAMMAR Masculine el los un unos
Feminine la las una unas
Definite Indefinite
Singular Plural Singular Plural
NOUNS
• Name people, places, things, ideas, feelings, and qualities; vary
in number and gender, as indicated by preceding article
NUMBER
• May be singular or plural
• To form plural, add -s to words that end in a vowel, and -es to
words ending in a consonant (e.g., la casa / las casas, el tren /
los trenes)
• Mixed gender groups always adopt masculine plural form (e.g.,
los niños -children; boys & girls)
GENDER
• No set rule dictates noun’s gender (masculine or feminine)
• Gender should be learned along with noun’s meaning;
however, there are some common patterns
Masculine Endings
-o, -l, and -r (e.g., el verano)
• There are numerous exceptions (e.g., la moto)
Feminine Endings
-a, -ción, -sión, -umbre, (e.g., la casa)
• There are many exceptions (e.g., el día)
Other Cases
• Some nouns end in -o in masculine form, and change to -a for
feminine (e.g., el niño / la niña)
• In other cases, only the article changes (e.g., el estudiante / la
estudiante -male or female student)
• Some nouns have special endings for the feminine (e.g., el
actor / la actriz -actor/actress)
• Some nouns of either gender apply to males or females
(e.g., la persona -the person)
Gerund -ar -er -ir
amando bebiendo viviendo
Participle -ar -er -ir
amado bebido vivido
PRESENT TENSE
The present tense is used to describe an action or
state that is occurring at the moment; it can also
express everyday habits or actions that have no
specific time limit
Examples: Hablo inglés. (I speak English. / I do
speak English. / I am speaking English.)
• When English requires an additional verb,
Spanish does not
Ej: No habla inglés. (He does not speak English.)
INDICATIVE PRESENT
FORMING QUESTIONS
1. Questions in Spanish begin with an inverted question mark (¿)
and close with a regular question mark (?)
2. Intontation (raised at end)
3. Placing predicate in front of subject (e.g., ¿Habla usted
inglés? -Do you speak English?)
4. Adding no, verdad or no es verdad to end of sentence
INTERROGATIVE WORDS
qué: what cómo: how
por qué: why quién: who
dónde: where cuál: which
de quién: whose cuándo: when
cuánto: how much cuántos: how many
para qué: what for
-ar (amar)
-er (beber)
-ir (vivir)
amoamamos
amas amáis
amaaman
bebobebemos
bebes bebéis
bebebeben
vivovivimos
vives vivís
viveviven
-ar
-er
-ir
hablaréhablaremos
hablarás hablaréis
hablaráhablarán
beberébeberemos
beberás beberéis
beberábeberán
viviréviviremos
vivirás viviréis
vivirávivirán
-ar
-er
-ir
hablaría hablaríamos
hablarías hablaríais
hablaría hablarían
bebería beberíamos
beberías beberíais
bebería beberían
viviría viviríamos
vivirías viviríais
viviría vivirían
TM
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Description
After English, Spanish is the most widely spoken language in the Western Hemisphere, and speaking it fluently can often help you understand other languages like French or Italian. Of course, basic verbs and grammar are the cornerstones of speaking any language, so having this reference guide nearby as you learn will be invaluable.
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