Modern Irish History .docx

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St. Michael's College Courses
Patrick Mc Gowan

Land and People Emily Jennings Time line 1500-present 1. Statistics  486Km North to South (Toronto to Pembrook)  16 Irelands into the province of Ontario  Current population of Republic 4.2 Million, population of North 1.7million o 1850s population close to 8 million, never recovered  Ireland is warmer than Newfound Land because of the North Atlantic Gulf Stream  55 deg north latitude in Winter less sunshine than in Toronto, and in the Summer long evenings  Heaviest rainfall along west coast 120cm/year o Acts as a rain shadow because of the land forms that there is less rain in the eastern counties  Battles, farmland etc dependent on the elements 2. The Land  16km away from Scotland but the most used routes from the West cork and Kerry coasts (most direct route to Brittany in France)  1/5 of land covered by Bog (Donegal) o mostly on the West coast  peat- plant material that has decayed  limits activities and transportation  some of the stuff that made up the bog was trees  at one time Ireland principle source of Oak th  Tudor period until 18 century British denuded Irish of most of its wood for the British navy  Burren (Clare) o Ancient geological wonder that emerged as Ireland and the continent was being formed  Rock pushed up from the bottom of the ocean  Nothing grows on it, super desolate but beautiful  Mountains o Reeks (Kerry)  Highest peaks in Ireland  Mount Carrantouhil is the largest mountain in Ireland 1039m o Dingle Mountains o Wicklow o Dulock mountains (Mayo)  Cant grow much in the mountains  Pastures sheep and cows etc.  Throughout Irish history tension between those who want to till and those who want to herd. o Croagh Patrick (mayo)  Mountain allegedly where Patrick went up barefoot  Mountains also take on spiritual meaning  Coasts o Imposing cliffs o Ships cannot land ie invaders  Unless invaders know not all coasts impenetrable (vikings)  Can go through river, Lithe, Boyne etc  Access points o Major cities not on ports, but at the mouth of Rivers because they are easily fortified o Natural transportation hubs largely because of Geography (Athlone) o Norse settlers built fortifications inland that is why hubs not on the coast o Only natural fjord in irlenad is called a Locke in mayo 3. The counties  originate from Anglo-Norman period based off of the shires in England  municipal and cultural units o only 2 levels of governemtn in Ireland  national government (of north and south)  four provinces (connach, leinster, munster, ulster)  municipal councillors county officials  most important to the people  26 counties in the South, 6 in the North o 29 in the south administration o Tiperary into 2, Dublin into 3  GAA (Gaelic Athletic Association) organize around county basis, counties fierce competitors with eachother eg. Wexford and Waterford, Kerry and Cork  Cultural dissimilarities in the counties  5 Urban municipalities that work outside of the counties o Dublin, Cork, Limerick, Galway, Waterford 4. Natural Resources  textiles  mining  petroleum and Natural gas o Irish don’t benefit from that at all, Irish sold rites to the Norwegian oil companies (there is a thank you on youtube) 5. Industry  Dublin, cork , Brewery, agricultural products 6. Religion  one of the constant themes in Irish history  Roman Catholic in the Republic (88%) and Protestant (50%) in the North  Religious configuration in Ireland about the same o 75% catholic, and 25% protestant The Tutor Incursions Emily Jennings Timeline: 1485-1603 1. Why Ireland 2. Incomplete Conquest 3. Henry VIII and Reformation 4. Wars of Elizabeth 1. Why Ireland  Strategic o If you’re there your enemies won’t be  Spain, France, Holy Roman Empire  Old English in Ireland o Anglo-Normand nobility colony around Dublin o Also located in other port areas: cork, Waterford, Wexford, Limerick  Easily fortified and access to inland o Not to protect the “old-English” but because the Tutors didn’t trust the old-English  Did their own thing  War of the Roses  York, Lancaster  Old English in Ireland divided in loyalties  Tutors not Pure Lancastrians o Owen Tutor was Welsh  Married Margaret of Lancaster  Questions whether or not legit 2. Incomplete Conquest  No one ever held Ireland but there was a presence o Making periodic incursions into backcountry filled with Irish chieftains o No control over country, control over parts of the East Coast  Most important Earls named Kildare (county named after him) o Close to Dublin near the Pale o More sympathetic to Yorkists than Lancastrians  Simnel says he rightfully titled to the throne  Earl of Kildare supports, Simnel crowned king in Dublin Edward VI  Henry VII not killed works in Kitchen o Kildare in a dangerous position  Parliament deputy o Make sure parliament beholding to English parliament  Poynings said any legislation in Ireland had to be approved in England  Poynings Law secure parliament of Ireland although sometimes deputies could not be trusted  Garrett Mor Kildare incarcerated in Tower of London for being a prick 3. Henry VIII and the Reformation  Henry VII died and his Second son assumed the throne Henry VIII o Considered a wonder of the world, renaissance man o Henry Married Arthur his brother’s widow Catherine of Aragon  Spanish princess, solidify Spain and England  Kildare rose in rebellion 1534  Henry sent an army and destroyed the Irish army  English army killed everyone in headquarters in Maynooth  Rival family to the Kildares the Butlers now in a great position to take over chieftains o Butlers relatives of Anne Boleyn  1535 Henry VIII declares himself supreme head of English Church o Pope refuses to dispense marriage, Catherine of Aragon is the Aunt of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V  Most powerful man in Europe largest standing Army and Naval  Divorces Catherine, Marries Anne Boleyn o Already protestants in England but they had to hide because  1536 Henry VIII official head of the Church of Ireland o most part small area o ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH now has NO OFFICIAL STATUS Roman Catholic vs. Protestant Roman Catholic Protestant RC founded in 1 century by Jesus 16thcentury but back to 1 century roots Saved by grace manifest in works without corruption of catholic church Learn what god says through scripture Faith alone is salvation, works have and tradition nothing to do with it God makes himself present through 7 Scripture alone is the only reliable thing sacraments SOLA SCRIPTURA SOLA GRACIA Corporate salvation communally Maybe 2 sacraments (verified in scripture) Ministerial priesthood Individual salvation Ritualized faith, very elaborate Priesthood is made up of all believers, Part of mystical communion of saints everyone is a priest (theoretically) Less ritual focus more on individual piety and prayer Calvinists saying mystical saints cluttering things including Mary Disloyal if you don’t share the same religion of the King. They owe their loyalty to pope in Rome and not the King  1541 Irish parliament declares him King of Ireland o Head of church and King o Number of Irish chieftains submit o Conn O’Neill  The power player in northern Ireland  Submits to Henry’s supremacy he would recede you your lands  Becomes Earl of Tyrone and does not stop being Catholic but renounces pope for Henry  1547 Laois and Offaly o rebellions brutally suppressed by Conn O’Neill so he didn’t look easy on rebellions o Earls in Laois and Offaly defeated and the counties and the Current names ceased to exist and renamed Queen’s County and King’s county  Henry Dies 1547 4.Wars of Elizabeth 1558-1603 Protestant  1570 Pius V excommunicates Elizabeth and releases everyone from their oaths  Roman Catholics in Ireland and England now treasonous o Life miserable for catholic majority if they aren’t careful o Looks like they had their pope remove her authority Rebellions in Munster  Whole region laid to waste 1579 o Plant English settlers Trouble in Ulster  O’Neills and the O’Donnells (Tyrone and Donegal)  Team up and fight a 9 year war with Elizabeth in the north (she dies before the war ends) o 1594-1603  treaty of Mellifont restores Earls to original territory even though they were losing  have enemies close to you now 1588 King of Spain Phillip II was “married” to Mary I  sends massive naval force against England the Spanish Armada o Catholic Europe will support Catholics in England and Ireland o WHY BOTHER WITH IRELAND  Keep it from Enemies  Spanish weren’t headed towards Ireland but England o Defeat of the Spanish Armada, sailed trying to get out of British waters, navigate treacherous waters around Ireland and Scotland  Land in Ulster and Connacht  1589 Sligo beach at Streedah 1100 soldiers dead from drowning  Elizabeth’s military governor of Connacht go to hunt them down  Old church of pilgrimage  Richard Bingham hunted any Irish family who took in Spanish families o Catholics inherently disloyal and he must crush them  We know about this from a letter that was published by an officer who survived Francisco de Cuellar o Discovers own sailors who had been hung o Impression of Irish in Connacht Incomplete conquest made worse by Religion Interests of England Differences that polarize Irish tradition From Plantation to the Boyne Emily Jennings Timeline: 1603-1691 1. The Stuarts 2. Flight of the Ears- Plantation 3. Civil War and confederacy 4. Cromwell 5. James II vs William III Touchstone—what is a touchstone?  Something that grounds you as a nation  There are 4 important touchstones in this period o Plantation  One side, how we got here, another side-things were taken from us o Siege of Derry  Coat of arms of Derry has a skeleton o 1641  seen as for one side, a moment when Irish gathered in unity to create something that was Irish and still affiliated with England, the other side it is seen that the Catholics cannot be trusted o Boyne  1690 1. The Stuarts 1603 Elizabeth died. Her heir was James VI of Scotland and then James I of England  James unlike mother MQS was protestant o King James Version of the Bible Hugh O’Neill and Rory O’Donnel  Lost the 9 years war but they are still in the area of Tyrone and Donegal o Not trusted. Believed to be wanting to make war again 2. Flight of the Ears- Plantation 1605 matters worsen. Guy Fawkes tries to blow up parliament, all Catholics not trusted  rounded up at Loch Swilly, O’Neill and O’Donnell left the country to try to round up other Catholics on the continent but they died in Rome.  Tried by the crown and 4 million acres of their land went to the crown o The crown divides up into 100 and 200 acre plots  New plantation. No native Irish Gaelic people could be on the plantation, thousands displaced  40,000 English planters placed on the 4 million acres  land to gentlemen—undertakers  servitors—demobilized soldiers given land  Irish tenants would have to be accepted because they needed them to help  They are now drawers of water and wood cutters o Under class that is Irish and catholic o Upper class that is English and protestant  Irish society of London  Set up at loch Foyle near Derry Londonderry  After the name of the plantation beginners 1625 James I dies and Charles I assumes the throne  Charles is not as hardened as a protestant. He marries a French Catholic wife called Henrietta. She is allowed to keep a private chapel Puritans suspicious that Charles is a closet catholic. Parliament dominated by puritan faction but also a royalist faction. He was bad at raising money!  Decided to get his money from Ireland o If Charles can get money from Old English (still Roman Catholic) he would give them freedom “graces”.  They are caught in between. Share common ancestors with English and their religion with the Irish 3. Civil War and confederacy Puritans and the Royalists split and caused a civil war  Irish people are confused who to route for 1641 bloodbath in the north  fighting against plantations  Phelim O’Neill and Owen Roe O’Neill—was in the Spanish army  The Pale Old Englishmen joined with the Irish o First time the Irish (mostly catholic) united to define what they stand for  Take up the cause of the king despite what Charles had done and what Wentworth had done o Confederacy of Kilkenny  Safe territory outside the pale  Rome got involved because it seemed like a catholic confederacy  Rinnunccini the bishop was the representative of the pope but acted like he was running the entire confederacy. People didn’t like that  Confederacy did well militarily but 1649 Charles I was killed o Cromwell became Lord Protector 4. Cromwell Army invincible, assigned to clean up the Irish situation in 1649  Became Lord (army guy) of Ireland  Strategic town of Drogheda o Refused to surrender, and slaughtered many of its civilians o Many other garrisons left their towns in his path  Wexford MASSIVE slaughter  1653 war over  Cromwell let 30000 Irish soldiers to leave o France Spain or roman empire o 30000 Irish civilians deported and sent to British colonies in the Caribbean Goes back to England and becomes lord protector and his son until 1660 Thomas Cromwell ineffective 1660, Stewarts come back 5. James II vs William III Charles II easy on Catholics on the most part but would have some show trials  Oliver Plunkett hanged drawn and quartered although no sign of treason Gave 1/3 land back to the Catholics. No one happy James II 1685  Was a catholic o First wife Protestant 2 daughte
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