Lecture 06 October 06, 2009.doc

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University of Toronto St. George
St. Michael's College Courses
Reid Locklin

SMC103Y1 October 6, 2009 Monasticism Icon of two early desert fathers who have a mystical understanding of religion, but also involves women and are by no means exclusive to men in this movement. Constantianian ideal of Imperial Church Constantine had a vision or ideal of an Imperial church. Constantine was the one who called the Council, following his Theocratic ideal where he is emperor at the head of both the church and the state. Emperors considered themselves responsible to God for the spiritual health of their subjects (maintain orthodoxy). Constantine always left the decision of the doctrine to the bishops, their role complimenting his role of enforcing the doctrine, rooting out heresy, and upholding ecclesiastical unity. Image shows the bishops and Constantine in the middle holding the Nicene Creed. Bishops are only responsible for their own dioces, and Constantine mediates the council for them to mediate their dispute. Theodosius I In 380 CE, Emperor Theodosius expels the non-Nicene bishop of Constantinople and appointed a pro-Nicene bishop, demonstrating his ability to depose and appoint bishops through his authority. Romans are now told to profess the Nicene faith compared to simply accepting it. Theodosius summons the council of Constantinople in 381 CE. He outlaws paganism throughout Rome and enforces the edicts of the Nicene Creed. Tax exemption from Christian clergy is one such benefit. Theodosius is the last emperor to really be in charge of the Empire as he passes each half to each of his two sons, and the Empire continues to split. 235 – 284 CE Rome is on brink of collapse, a series of 25 different Roman emperors. Emp
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