SMC103Y1 October 15, 2009
The Papal Monarchy
The Papacy begins to reach its pinnacle and becomes involved with political affairs.
The debate between Latin-speaking Christians of Western Europe accepting the
trend of the Papacy movement and the resistance of the Greek-speaking Christians
of Eastern Europe has lasted until current times.
Pope Gregory VII (1077 – 1085), Gregorian Reforms occurred before and after
him. Gregory VII was part of Monasticism, of the Benedictine tradition. The
Gregorian Reforms are based off of the Monastic vows of poverty (issue of Simony
buying and selling of Church offices), chastity (issue of clerical morality =
clerical marriage and concubinage) and obedience (issue of Lay Investiture or a
specific way of how bishops are appointed = spiritual authority of the pope is
superior to the temporal authority of the king).
Lay Investiture shows the authority the bishop has is given from the Lay of the
temporal authority. The king would give the bishop his crosier and silver ring to
symbolize his position, which raises an issue of who is in religious power. Dictatus
Papae (1075) is a series of 27 proposals that Gregory VII claims against the rights
for authorities to anoint and appoint bishops, and that the Pope is supposed to
retain this authority.
Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV (1056 – 1105) appoints the bishop of Milan,
directly contradicts Gregory VII’s Dictatus Papae and warns the Emperor that what
he is doing is wrong. Henry IV gathers all German bishops in a council to declare
Gregory VII not the Pope but a false monk. Gregory VII then deposes Henry IV as the
Holy Emperor, entering public territory of this dispute. The bishops of Rome try to
convince Henry IV to settle this dispute and make peace with Gregory VII. Henry IV
wears sacked clothes and begs for forgiveness in front of Gregory VII’s castle for
three days. Gregory forgives Henry IV, and recognizes this as a signal that the Pope
is in power. Henry IV sees it as a shrewd appeal and appoints a new Holy Roman
Emperor Rudolf. Henry IV re-establishes his borders and wins the civil war, then
Gregory VII flees, but gains alliances from southern Italy. Those alliances believed
they could take anything f