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SMC103Y1 Lecture Notes - Halifax Gazette, Seditious Libel, Susanna Moodie

St. Michael's College Courses
Course Code
Jennifer Harris

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Monday, September 26, 2011
Why of newspapers - Habermas
origin of public sphere
autonomous space between state and society where individuals freely discuss
problems of common concern
public sphere steers political action
coffeehouses where information not controlled by elites, largely indifferent to social
status, place where news and business exchanged
seats of English liberty
next sphere: newspapers
“news” from “new” 14th c
Egyptians: papyrus bulletins 2400BCE
Romans: Acta Diurna - 131 BCE-330CE
Chinese: Bulletins written on silk 5th C
Italians: avvisi 1550s cost: one gazetta
gazetta becomes English word for Gazette
first official government publication: London Gazette -> American colonies ->
Canadian colonies1700s
Canadian Newspaper Periods
Gazette/transplant period: 1750-1800
public sphere period: 1800-ca.1850
nation-building/myth-making: 1850-ca.1880
commercial period: 1870-1930
mass media/chain ownership: 1930-1970
chameleon period/struggles: 1970
Transplant Period
1752: John Bushell from Boston publishes first issues of Halifax Gazette
1807: John Ryan, American expatriate, publishes first issue of Royal Gazette and
Newfoundland Advisor
all but one Cdn newspaper started by Americans
King’s printer/Queen’s printer, official government printing
3 factors
British-American colonies settled earlier than British-Canadian, concept more
advanced in America thus
French government bars printing presses from Quebec to keep colony dependent
on motherland, brought in after Conquest
50,000 British loyalist move north after American Revolution 1763, bringing presses
all start life as official/semi-official organs of government
all dependent on government patronage
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