SMC291 - Lecture 11

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27 Mar 2012
Lecture 11 3/27/2012 12:16:00 PM
Product, Distribution, Exhibition
Chrominance, luminance
526/60, 2:1, 526 lines/second, 60 fields/sec (half a frame)
dichroic black
interlaced vs progressive scanning
Disney Corp. Vertical Integration
Walt Disney Pictures
Touchstone Pictures
Hollywood Pictures
Caravan Pictures
Dimension Films
Pixar Computer Animation
Buena Vista Pictures Distribution (now Walt Disney Studios Motion
Buena Vista Home Entertainment (now Walt Disney Studios Home
Entertainment, but still referred to under the old name)
Buena Vista Television (Disney-ABC Domestic Television)
Buena Vista International Television (Disney-ABC International
Buena Vista International (now Walt Disney Distribution)
Buena Vista Music Group (now Disney Music Group)
Buena Vista Theatrical Productions (now Walt Disney Theatrical)
Buena Vista Interactive (now Disney Interactive Studios)
Touchstone, Hollywood Pictures, Caravan, and Dimension Films --
licensed for pay-per-view through Showtime or iNDEMAND.
Cable: ABC Family/ Toon Disney
E!, ESPN, History, and Lifetime as well as the Lifetime Movie Network
Over-the-air: ABC broadcast network
Online: Walt Disney Internet Group
Disney Corp. Horizontal Integration
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Music: Walt Disney Records, Hollywood Records, and Lyric Street
Parks and Resorts :Disney Cruise Line, eight Disney Vacation Club
resorts, Disneyland, Disney World, Tokyo Disney, Disneyland Resort
Paris, Hong Kong Disneyland
Disneyland Publishing Worldwide
Disney Consumer Products : Disney Toys, Disney Apparel, Accessories &
Footwear, Disney Food, Health & Beauty, Disney Home and Disney
Aleksandar Louis Todorovic: “Digital Television”
Analog-to-Digital Conversion:
i) Sampling “The sampling process means the taking of a number
of sample values at evenly spaced intervals across a continuous
ii) Quantizing: The amplitude of each sample is rounded up or
down to the nearest discrete level.
iii) Coding: “Each of the amplitude levels . . . will be represented
with a given symbol composed of a set of binary values of 1 and 0
(a.k.a. bits) . . . called a binary group or binary word.
Cultural consequences for Canada
“Aliasing Effects: Neglecting the frequency at which a sampled signal
changes over time and subsampling it could result in the appearance of
undesired artifacts known as aliasing effects. The most obvious example
of an aliasing effect is the impression one has in Western movies that
stagecoach wheels rotate backwards. The technique of motion
reproduction in movie-making is based on a temporal sampling of the
action that takes place in front of the lens. The action is sampled with a
frequency of 24 pictures per second, which is far below the rotational
frequency of the wheels. Consequently, such a subsampling produces a
visible aliasing effect of backward rotation of the wheels. Namely,
between two samples (two frames) the wheels have achieved more than
one full revolution and the second sample (frame) appears to show the
wheel in a position that precedes the one captured in the first frame.”
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Digital Standards Conversion:
i) Line length;
ii) Number of lines (including their repositioning since the lines in
two scanning systems have different geometrical positions on the
iii) Number of fields (and also in a given temporal sampling, since
the movement of an object in front of the camera will be portrayed
with 50 pictures per second in one case and 60 pictures per second
in the other).
Digital Standards Conversion:
i) Line length horizontal conversion;
ii) Number of lines -- Vertical conversion;
iii) Number of fields Interpolation.
International Standards
Recommendation 601 : (not on exam…)
Coded signals: luminance (Y) and the two color difference signals
(Cr and Cb);
Sampling frequencies: 13.5 MHz; 6.75 MHz, and 6.75 MHz,
Number of samples per digital line: 720 for luminance and 360 for
each of the color difference signals
Number of bits per sample: 8;
Overall bit rate: 216 Mbps (magabits per second) (13.5 mHz x 8)
+ (6.75 Mhz x 8) + (6.75 Mhz x 8)
“ . . . with the adoption of Recommendation 601, the digitization of
television progressed at a very fast pace. This brought three
industries much closer together and led to one of the most
important events in present-day electronics the convergence of
television, telecom, and computer technologies into one complex
entity known today as communication and information
technologies.” (Todorovic, p. 70)
“Convergence means that the same techniques can be used in different
areas, the same transport channels can carry any sort of content, and a
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