SMC 175 L10.23 - Charlemagne and Carolingian Era

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St. Michael's College Courses
Jennifer Harris

SMC 175 – Medieval Civilization J. Harris 10/23/12 R ECAP OF LAST WE:K - Role of Pope in the Ecclesiastical hierarchy o Localized, privatized forms of governance filled void left by the Romans when the Western half fell o Church stepped in to maintain relations between these disparate groups o Pope is the bishop of Rome – reimagined as the head of the ecclesiastical community – fosters well-being of members of the Church o Acted as a judge in adjudicating disputes pertaining to doctrinal, and mundane issues ~ “earthly judge” o Church functioned as the judicial system in particular areas o Overseer of the social and liturgical activities o Temporal head of a divinely ordained hierarchy o Not until the 12 c. when the Pope finally stabilized his control over the rest of the Church o Adjudicates political matter  Seen when the Carolingian dynasty was established with the pope’s blessing o Spiritual head as well – doctrine of the 2 swords (temporal and spiritual swords – debate about who holds which and who wields which)  Investiture conflict concerns the separation of temporal and spiritual authority  Concluded with the kings and leaders prevented from appointing their own bishops, and popes from meddling with political affairs - Insular monasticism o Monk’s job is to pray for the world as one removed from it, while the ecclesiastical members (i.e., priests, bishops) pray as those within it (as they are teachers as well)  Ecclesiastical = worldly o Began in Ireland – no ecclesiastical hierarchy for monasticism to respond to  Developed separate from ecclesiasticism o Lots of monasteries – place where priests and bishops were drawn to administer ecclesiastical teachings o Irish monasticism slowly took on ecclesiastical hierarchy later on o England’s Christian tradition started by the Romans  Monks came over from Ireland and this interaction led to the hybridization of ecclesiastical and monastic hierarchy  Thought to be sister institutions because ecclesiastical order did not develop at the same time as monastic order (unlike in the Continent)  Roman ecclesiastical order slowly adopted elements from Irish monasticism **R EAD UP MORE FROM C HAPTERS8 + 9 **Drawing Europe JEOPARDY - Charles Martel (the Hammer) = Charlemagne’s grandfather - Capitulary, 789 = Admonitio generalis - New form of writing = Carolingian miniscule - 8 c. document, church authority = Donation of Constantine - Louis the Pious, treaty = Treaty of Verdun - Louis the Child, last of … = … Carolingian kings How do we know what we know? - Carolingian renewal led to the abundance of literary resources thanks to the existence of monasteries and their fervent focus on education and literature - 8000 surviving manuscripts – exists on vellum bound as codices o Lengthy production process but worth it for the durability – writing on leather, technically - Monastic scribes use vellum for writing and duplication - More monasteries = increased literary production and preservation o Monks preserved the culture of Europe - Material increased dramatically by Louis’s reign (**which one?) - Primary textual sources – writing, books as material remains - Illustrations and how books were made can tell us about medieval thought processes and production - 12 c. manuscripts – family tree of the Carolingians (Pippinids) o Done on a structure (architectural form) rather than the standard tree o Shows how
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