SMC 175 L10.30 - Pilgrims and Crusaders

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St. Michael's College Courses
Jennifer Harris

SMC 125 – M EDIEVALCIVILIZATION J. HARRIS 10/30/12 **Carr Hall computer lab tutorial **Guest Lecture – Christopher Miller PILGRIMS ANDCRUSADERS - 3 elements of Medieval society – Christianitas, Germanitas and Romanitas o Notion of judgment after death, added by Christianitas element o Tied to masculine virtues – prowess in battlefield o Honour, renown worthy goals of earthly endeavor - Institution of confession and penance o Public affairs – kneel in front of church in sackcloth, praying o Middle ages, made private – acts of humility for penance o Necessary because men guilty of violence and war o Penitentiary laws according to vices written (e.g., gluttony) o Means of avoiding damnation and being allowed communion (maintain good-standing with faith) - Pilgrimage another form of penance o Saints, martyrs  Great Roman Persecution, unwed women, rebel bishops o God made His power known through them even after death – greatest is the power of healing  Mediation between them and god - Saint parts – holy relics (material possessions and bones) – physical, spiritual proximity to them of great importance o Reliquary not often in the shape of the part o “Seeing” and “not seeing” concepts of Christianity  Reinforces faith, belief - Pilgrims journey to visit reliquaries – shrines o Purpose of making journey to be healed, to atone, to become closer to God - Reliquaries used for legitimization of rule by nobles o Big business, pilgrimages o Riches, spectacles, structured around shrine o Patronized saint and shrine  Cult of Charlemagne  Shrine to Edward the Confessor – “squeezes” (holes within shrine) - Badges commemorating visit - Prestige of being a star pilgrim - Holy itineraries – travel guide for pilgrims o Sense of destinations – does not show distance, mode of travel, etc. - Pilgrim routes web Europe - Churches established to house pilgrims – especially for popular shrines - Pilgrimage to Jerusalem – 4 c., unabated through Middle Ages – one-year duration o Falk the Black, 3 pilgrimages to Jerusalem as penance for killing wife o St. Jerome, Jerusalem pilgrimage - Bernard the Monk o Muslim relations amiable but still suspicious if pilgrims don’t have identification - Crusaders were pilgrims till the changes in Muslim relations - 11 c., Alexius I of Constantinople asked Latin Christendom for help to reclaim lands from Muslims to defend Christianity and Jerusalem - Muslims supposedly defile Christian holy places and go out of their way to slaughter Christians - Spiritual and terrestrial rewards emphasized when Urban tried to convince nobles and peasants alike o Preserve rights of the Church, keep peace between each other because they have a common enemy - Immediate remission of sins if one should die in the battlefield during the campaign - Rich and poor, young and old joined the cause - Peasant’s crusades o First group to march to Constantinople o Majority of them were poor people, not many noblemen joined just then o Led by one Peter the Hermit o They were ill-prepared, disorganized and inexperienced in military matters o Wrong representations – illuminations (art) show knights behind Peter the Hermit – clearly propaganda - In the Rhineland, they turned their rage to the non-Christians living there as they were passing through – e.g. , Jews o Subjected them to forced conversion, extortion, mass slaughter, pillaging and some forced suicide to save themselves o Bled the towns in their route for supplies o Though the non-Christians were under the protection of kings and bishops of their area, the crusaders still exploited them - Tension between rulers and Christians – places where these violent outbreaks occur on the route to the East o Townspeople were at odds with the bishops - Pillaging farmland  armed confrontation  crusaders died along the way o Hungarian lords authorized the slaughter of the Crusaders - Prince’s Crusade o Second movement o Number of armies lead by the elite of Western society o These are men of wealth whose way of life involves violence and war-mongering o French-speakers’ affair – i.e., mostly French noblemen led the charge  Investiture conflict in Germanic kingdoms  England, Norman Conquest’s solidification of control  Reconquest in Spain th - Great Norman Enterprise of 11 c., continuation of the Crusade (?) o Drive to expand and conquer o Normans all over Europe - Knights’ families accompanied the Crusaders o Elite men, families, army, pilgrims all travel together - Alexius I had negotiations with independent leaders of Crusaders separately – forced to do so because the crusaders were not one unified army – many leaders o Oath given of the return of Byzantine lands to Constantinople’s control – ephemeral oath - Crusaders dependent on the Byzantines to be ferried across the Bosphorus - Difficult journey – even the noblemen were forced to loot on the way o Devastation of villages on the crusade’s path - Crusaders laid siege to Jerusalem, bloody struggle for control o Alexius I’s secret dealings with the residents of Jerusalem o Crusaders found Jerusalem’s doors opened and the city filled by Greeks (Byzantines) after their long siege - Sophisticated and sly – affirmation of the suspicions of the crusaders that Greeks are so o Were they genuine Christians? - Crusaders were looking forward into pillaging Jerusalem but they couldn’t so they went further out o Siege of Nicaea, hands thrown from the battlements o Antioch, 1-year siege, captured by crusaders (bribery included) – plunder and slaughter but later besieged by Muslim reinforcements, turned to the supernatural for intervention, inspiration o Revelations in the sky, strange behaviour, omens  Effects of strain, hunger caused by the campaign- breaking down - Peter, a peasant pilgrim, had a vision of finding the holy lance within the w
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