SMC103Y1 Lecture Notes - Holy Places, Holy Lance, Phil Lord And Christopher Miller

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16 Nov 2012
**Carr Hall computer lab tutorial
**Guest Lecture – Christopher Miller
- 3 elements of Medieval society – Christianitas, Germanitas and Romanitas
oNotion of judgment after death, added by Christianitas element
oTied to masculine virtues – prowess in battlefield
oHonour, renown worthy goals of earthly endeavor
- Institution of confession and penance
oPublic affairs – kneel in front of church in sackcloth, praying
oMiddle ages, made private – acts of humility for penance
oNecessary because men guilty of violence and war
oPenitentiary laws according to vices written (e.g., gluttony)
oMeans of avoiding damnation and being allowed communion (maintain good-standing
with faith)
- Pilgrimage another form of penance
oSaints, martyrs
Great Roman Persecution, unwed women, rebel bishops
oGod made His power known through them even after death – greatest is the power of
Mediation between them and god
- Saint parts – holy relics (material possessions and bones) – physical, spiritual proximity to them
of great importance
oReliquary not often in the shape of the part
o“Seeing” and “not seeing” concepts of Christianity
Reinforces faith, belief
- Pilgrims journey to visit reliquaries – shrines
oPurpose of making journey to be healed, to atone, to become closer to God
- Reliquaries used for legitimization of rule by nobles
oBig business, pilgrimages
oRiches, spectacles, structured around shrine
oPatronized saint and shrine
Cult of Charlemagne
Shrine to Edward the Confessor – “squeezes” (holes within shrine)
- Badges commemorating visit
- Prestige of being a star pilgrim
- Holy itineraries – travel guide for pilgrims
oSense of destinations – does not show distance, mode of travel, etc.
- Pilgrim routes web Europe
- Churches established to house pilgrims – especially for popular shrines
- Pilgrimage to Jerusalem – 4th c., unabated through Middle Ages – one-year duration
oFalk the Black, 3 pilgrimages to Jerusalem as penance for killing wife
oSt. Jerome, Jerusalem pilgrimage
- Bernard the Monk
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oMuslim relations amiable but still suspicious if pilgrims don’t have identification
- Crusaders were pilgrims till the changes in Muslim relations
- 11th c., Alexius I of Constantinople asked Latin Christendom for help to reclaim lands from
Muslims to defend Christianity and Jerusalem
- Muslims supposedly defile Christian holy places and go out of their way to slaughter Christians
- Spiritual and terrestrial rewards emphasized when Urban tried to convince nobles and peasants
oPreserve rights of the Church, keep peace between each other because they have a
common enemy
- Immediate remission of sins if one should die in the battlefield during the campaign
- Rich and poor, young and old joined the cause
- Peasant’s crusades
oFirst group to march to Constantinople
oMajority of them were poor people, not many noblemen joined just then
oLed by one Peter the Hermit
oThey were ill-prepared, disorganized and inexperienced in military matters
oWrong representations – illuminations (art) show knights behind Peter the Hermit –
clearly propaganda
- In the Rhineland, they turned their rage to the non-Christians living there as they were passing
through – e.g. , Jews
oSubjected them to forced conversion, extortion, mass slaughter, pillaging and some
forced suicide to save themselves
oBled the towns in their route for supplies
oThough the non-Christians were under the protection of kings and bishops of their area,
the crusaders still exploited them
- Tension between rulers and Christians – places where these violent outbreaks occur on the route
to the East
oTownspeople were at odds with the bishops
- Pillaging farmland armed confrontation crusaders died along the way
oHungarian lords authorized the slaughter of the Crusaders
- Prince’s Crusade
oSecond movement
oNumber of armies lead by the elite of Western society
oThese are men of wealth whose way of life involves violence and war-mongering
oFrench-speakers’ affair – i.e., mostly French noblemen led the charge
Investiture conflict in Germanic kingdoms
England, Norman Conquest’s solidification of control
Reconquest in Spain
- Great Norman Enterprise of 11th c., continuation of the Crusade (?)
oDrive to expand and conquer
oNormans all over Europe
- Knights’ families accompanied the Crusaders
oElite men, families, army, pilgrims all travel together
- Alexius I had negotiations with independent leaders of Crusaders separately – forced to do so
because the crusaders were not one unified army – many leaders
oOath given of the return of Byzantine lands to Constantinople’s control – ephemeral oath
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