3 elements of medieval society christianitas, germanitas and romanitas: notion of judgment after death, added by christianitas element, tied to masculine virtues prowess in battlefield, honour, renown worthy goals of earthly endeavor. Great roman persecution, unwed women, rebel bishops: god made his power known through them even after death greatest is the power of healing. Saint parts holy relics (material possessions and bones) physical, spiritual proximity to them of great importance: reliquary not often in the shape of the part o. Pilgrims journey to visit reliquaries shrines: purpose of making journey to be healed, to atone, to become closer to god. Reliquaries used for legitimization of rule by nobles: big business, pilgrimages, riches, spectacles, structured around shrine, patronized saint and shrine. Shrine to edward the confessor squeezes (holes within shrine) Holy itineraries travel guide for pilgrims. Sense of destinations does not show distance, mode of travel, etc. Churches established to house pilgrims especially for popular shrines.