SMC 175 L11.06 - Towns and Universities

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University of Toronto St. George
St. Michael's College Courses
Jennifer Harris

SMC 175 – Medieval Civilization J. Harris 11/06/12 TOWNS AND U NIVERSITIES **NO CLASS ORTUTORIAL NEXT WEE– F ALLBREAK **NO M APQ UIZ ON THF INALEXAM **R EADINGQ UIZ8 OPENS NEXT UESDAY,NOT TODAY TH **FINAL EXAM – DEC. 14 , 9-12PM. PLEASE CHECK THEXAM SCHEDULE FOR LOCATION O UTLIN: FACTORS BEHIND THE RISE TOWNS : - Environmental factors - Demographics - Agricultural revolution - Commercial revolution TALE OF TWO CITI: ONDUNIUM AND L UTITIA BIRTH OF AUNIVERSITY - Age of form and renewal – Map of Europe, 1050 (11 .c ) o Dramatic rise in population characterized period o 65 million people (3 c., Roman Empire), declined to 50 million people (5 c.) and continued to drop till the 11 c., population estimated to be 18000 people (75% drop) o Change in location played a part o 95% of the population living in the countryside – de-urbanization - Wealthy people, move to countryside to avoid taxation - There’s a safety in the countryside – city is dangerous, often the target of migratory hostile groups - People gathered in villages - Renewal of urbanization o New kind of political stability by 1000 AD o Stable German monarchies (Ottonians), increasingly stabilizing power in Frankish kingdoms (Capetians), Normans in England ~ peacefulness - External threats domesticated o Magyars quelled by Otto, Christianized o Vikings settled in Normandy o Islamic forces contained by smaller monarchies in the Iberian peninsula Agricultural Revolution - Climate change – Medieval Warm Period - Allowed Roman Empire to flourish – grow food longer and more extensively - Shift in climate that coincided with the falling temperature, reason for barbarian migration south (500-900 AD) – big drop in population of Europe - 900-1350 AD = Medieval Warm Period – global increase in temperature = increase in agricultural possibilities o Growing season increased, people went further than the Mediterranean - Bucolic simplicity of Medieval Period – 14 c. illustration o Different planting arrangements o Heavy plow o Walled city - By 1000, 18000 people living in villages o End of MWP, grew to 75 million - Higher birth rates (35-40 per 1000 per year) - Low infant mortality rate – esp. for females – survival to child-bearing years is significant - Social stability – Peace of God movement - Consistent and growing food supply - Medieval diet – grain, vegetables, dairy, legumes, and a little meat - 70% consist of grain in the form of bread and beer (with lower alcohol content) o Beer is for purifying water – way of getting healthier liquid and nutrients - 1/3 of the year is designated by the Church for fasting – no meat; substitute fish, chicken, duck and beaver o Noblemen had more access to meat (expensive) - Technological innovations important for agricultural intensification o Widespread use of water wheels and windmills for grinding grain into flour (machine of the Middle Ages)  Later employed for other uses (cotton and saw mills)  Domesday book – survey of England’s estates by William of Normandy  Indicative of settlements  Invented in Antiquity but proliferated in the medieval period th o The plough was perfected (10 c.) – esp. the heavy plough for heavier soils  2 kinds: • Ard (scratch plough – no wheel, iron coulter and ploughshare) • Carruca (wheel – metal coulter and ploughshare)  Yoked teams of 6-8 oxens  Allowed people to increase extent of arable land o Development of horse collar – yoke (often used with oxen) not amenable to horses – huge strain on neck  900, evidence of horse collars and horseshoes (protect horse hooves from injury) - Before the horse and oxen, slaves were made to pull the ploughs o Use of the plough and animals made agriculture efficient - Transformation of the division of fields o Prior to 1000, 2-field system  Farm half, leave half fallow  Must leave land to fallow to allow the soil to rejuvenate – don’t grow anything, let animals wander in it  Yields single crop a year o 1000 onwards, 3-field rotational system  Allows for 2 sets of crops to be grown – planting in spring, another in fall  Third of the field left to fallow  Next rotation: spring field fallows, fall field planted in spring, fallowed field planted in spring  Increasing amount of arable land and food production Manorial system - Single estate (mansus) with house, gardens surrounded by o Demense: area worked by the locals o Peasant holdings o Common areas - Idealized manor o People settled in latifundia – self-sufficient estates – after fleeing the cities o These evolved into manors – proto-villages o Earliest documented manor in the Rhine, Po, and Loire valleys, 9 onwards – spread out from there o Governed by a lord – can be one of many manors  Control land, manage people o Monasteries can also act as landlords – peasants can work Church/monastic lands o Village = place where serfs (who were bound to the land) lived and worked  Indenture
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