September 14, 2011
Augustus Caesar 31 BC-15 AD
Peace & Social Order
The underlying concern for the state of Rome was to maintain peace and social order and
upholding the interests of the Roman state.
Crucifixion = most painful form of state punishment.
They chose this b/c it was an intimidating and public form of punishment.
City of Rome founded in 753
Rome was one of many powers in the 4 century BC
By 148 BC it had conquered all of Italy, Greece, and Carthage
Hannibal-general of Carthage
By 120 BC they’ve expanded into modern day France & Germany
By 62 BC they’ve taken over Syria
By 30 BC they’ve conquered Egypt
Augustus Caesar came to power after his uncle Julius Caesar was assassinated.
Used to be called Octavian before coming to power
Augustus Caesar is really considered the founder of Roman Empire b/c under his reign
Rome solidified the majority of its territory
Under his reign began the Pax Romana
The Pax Romana-close to 150 years of relative peace & social order
Maintained by close to 30 legions…of military
They also had a good infrastructure
Roads and relative stability allowed Christianity to spread
The Roman Empire at this time was centered around 4 major cities: Rome, Antioch,
Carthage, and Alexandria.
Christianity first grows in these city centers.
The main languages – Latin was becoming most popular in the Western and in the
Eastern Greek. The New Testament first writings was actually written in Greek.
Social StatusOne’s birth = one’s status
Social mobility was to a large degree fixed
There was some movement (e.g. you could go from slave to citizen) but this was
typically only allowed within the army
Rigid hierarchical structure