Roman Empire

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St. Michael's College Courses
Jessy Pagliaroli

SMC203-Lecture 2 September 14, 2011 Roman Empire Augustus Caesar 31 BC-15 AD Pax Romana Pax Deorum Pagan religion Peace & Social Order The underlying concern for the state of Rome was to maintain peace and social order and upholding the interests of the Roman state. Crucifixion = most painful form of state punishment. They chose this b/c it was an intimidating and public form of punishment. City of Rome founded in 753 Rome was one of many powers in the 4 century BC By 148 BC it had conquered all of Italy, Greece, and Carthage Hannibal-general of Carthage By 120 BC they’ve expanded into modern day France & Germany By 62 BC they’ve taken over Syria By 30 BC they’ve conquered Egypt Augustus Caesar came to power after his uncle Julius Caesar was assassinated. Used to be called Octavian before coming to power Augustus Caesar is really considered the founder of Roman Empire b/c under his reign Rome solidified the majority of its territory Under his reign began the Pax Romana The Pax Romana-close to 150 years of relative peace & social order Maintained by close to 30 legions…of military They also had a good infrastructure Roads and relative stability allowed Christianity to spread The Roman Empire at this time was centered around 4 major cities: Rome, Antioch, Carthage, and Alexandria. Christianity first grows in these city centers. The main languages – Latin was becoming most popular in the Western and in the Eastern Greek. The New Testament first writings was actually written in Greek. Social StatusOne’s birth = one’s status Social mobility was to a large degree fixed There was some movement (e.g. you could go from slave to citizen) but this was typically only allowed within the army Rigid hierarchical structure
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