SMC219Y1 - Lecture Notes #1.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
St. Michael's College Courses
Steve Hoselton

SMC219Y1 – LECTURE NOTES September 13, 2013 History of Media:  media and medium are Latin terms, means the middle, something that connects one thing to another  "medium" connects the small to the large  the means by which communication takes place  a tool or device that receives and transfers communication  the way a message is sent and received  two kinds of communication: intentional and accidental  accidental = ex: woodpecker looking for food by pecking a tree, the intent is to find food not notify us of its presence  the receiver interprets the communication message  intentional = medium is extension of ourselves; ex: prof extends by speaking their ideas, students extend their senses by receiving this ideas  media connects our sense to the outside world - McLuhan; not metaphorically only but literal as well The first form of communication: speech  payleogfeolists argue when speech first developed  we're the only animal that smiles intentionally  range of speech origin is between one hundred thousand - 2.5 million years ago  big range depends on definition of speech  human speech can be simply grunts and noises  but what makes our speech very different from animal speech is syntax; syntax distinguished us from the others  words is just a metaphor, means the same thing just represented differently via languages  verbs are more abstract to understand  syntax allows speech to have a specific meaning  so human language with syntax started 100,000 years ago  simple speech started 2.5 million years ago  breakthrough in human communication is writing which started 4-6 thousand years ago  communication started via paintings; pictograms started in Asian states  some pictograms eventually became the scripted word in Asian cultures, so the history is shown in the word/script itself  the purpose of writing at first was record tracking; ex: how many corn do i have; so numbers ad writing evolved at the same time  once they were able to record something, they could later develop writing into stories The second form of communication: print  block printing (works like stamp markers) was invented in 200 AD by the romans and Chinese used it, came before Gutenberg press  but type was ground-breaking  earliest form of type was invented not by Gutenberg but by bi sheng in 1040 AD  moveable type was made of porcelain and used them to create pages  porcelain isn’t sturdy so they broke frequently, they didn’t last long  the next improvement is bronze which is developed in Korea in 1230, a combo of tin and copper  solved the problem of porcelain; doesn’t break as easily  then the next improvement was Gutenberg; began experimenting with the idea of type and print earlier but popularity only increased in 1430 because of his bible  before in the west, books were copied by hand, printed books were easier and cheaper  the ways book meant changed, not necessarily a luxury anymore; anyone could read, literacy for everyone became common  once books became cheaper, it changed its class connection; before rich people read
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