Lecture 10 Feb 16.docx

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St. Michael's College Courses
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Francesco Guardiani

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SMC219Y1- Lecture Wednesday February 16, 2011 Biagi Ch. 8 – Television o 1884: Paul Nipkow patents the “electrical telescope” in Germany, which formed the basis for TV’s development through the 1920s --- beginning of the perception that sound waves can be sent out & images (condensed group of waves)- more theoretical o 1907: the word television first appears in the June 1907 issue of Scientific American o 1939: NBC debuts at World’s Fair in NYC with a broadcast that includes a blurry live image of President Franklin Roosevelt, first U.S president on TV o Must wait a while from 1884 for TV to be useful- wait until late 40s o Americans at forefront with developing broadcasts o *Baseball- the most successful programs which took more time up – sports is definitely linked to the success of TV o News was the justification, official reason for TV in households o 1947- beginning of news broadcasts, NBC and CBS begin broadcasting TV news on Camel News Caravan (NBC) and Television News with Douglas Edwards (CBS) o 1951- “I Love Lucy” TV program- most durable type of entertainment program– theatre entering into TV- something not possible with film o 1962: Telstar I sends the first transatlantic satellite broadcast o Role playing becomes a fact for TV- the notion of identity* and role-playing* and immediacy of experience opposed to the planning of a communal future distinguishes TV – television is the triumph in the fiction, actors become identified with characters in and out of TV show o 1963 broadcasting of shows like Mr. Roger’s o 1966: first satellite connection- trans Atlantic o ****Underwater laying of the electric telephone cables from 1966 (London to New York) o Today: wireless satellite broadcasting from coast to coast- explosion, applied technology of the electronic environment, now it is the beginning of a new age o Electric cable through air o Public TV 1963 : both a success and shame o 1973: TV and Watergate Hearings broadcasts o 1979- advent of CNN – Cable News Networks, started by Ted Turner – important innovation b/c of broadcasting of international events with correspondents all over the world – new approach to news o Highest rated program watching last episode of MASH (120 million people) o *Success of broadcasting measured at end of show airing, decided by viewers, shared or particular viewers o Rating: all people watching with respect to all people watching TV o Final episode of Cheers +80 million o Programs- TV creates an audience- the new medium is environmental, everything you create is an environment, the environment is the audience o Big coverage of big events- 2001 9/11 – TV present as happening – level of involvement- coolness- was at the extreme, people participating o 2003 Iraq war puts CNN on the map o Technical advancement- HDTV which became standard after American Congress decided in 2006 that it be mandatory all TV broadcast (digital high def by Feb 17 2009) o Fragmentation & personalization of TV (VCR- possibility for recording TV to watch at time you want) o Ability to pick and choose TV has been in agreement with re-tribalization of TV- mostly expressed by TV – allows role playing, participation, choosing imaginary environment = personalization of programs – separation of particular group called a tribe o TV at the beginning was homogenizing – EX: JFK killed o Now dissemination of so many channels o Today: TV programming is delivered on more than 500 different channels by over-the- air broadcast, cable and satellite – HDTV is the new standard Insights by McLuhan Understanding Media (1964) - Subtitles : TV Giant – 1964 appeared as potential only then, today: powerful old man? Had to share with other media - Fundamentals with other media? o Film put on TV o McLuhan was prompt in recognizing differences, the very same content created with another medium o Interesting experiment- 4 groups of university students given same info via different medium (TV, radio, oral lecture and print) which was the most effective? = content: pre-literate languages- best were TV And radio by far! – overall: radio: delivery was hot, TV was good for the impression and giving general idea. o Best may be radio with printed material shown on screen? o Level of involvement you get with RADIO – hot – can offer dyadic possibilities Comparison of film and radio o Film as an older medium, somewhat connected to the book culture or typography as photography still is. Film is nothing but a series of photographs and the association with TV is quite intense. While the biggest difference was the delivery of content. With film you have a screen that reflects the light that goes to your eyes while TV is light through screen becomes retina so you are in front of light that project right against your eyes and so you are somewhat mesmerized! o You can only make TV work if you are there o Pre HDTV not just blinking lights – more HDTV is hot, cooler when pixels not high which meant viewer had to make it hot and why TV was effective with TV o Preferred distance of a few inches by children! - Two comparisons by McLuhan – film hot compared to TV because linked to typography - Radio is hot because no possibility of participation, the level of participation with TV was recomposing the image and level of involvement - Brotherhood with TV – ex. Character of Mr. Rogers - McLuhan – TV is home of “roleplaying” sitcom exists because of role playing - Advertisement more powerful on TV because of notion of roleplaying, creation of bigger than life persona Mosaic- form of visual art in which the image is made up of a number of small piece of coloured glass, porcelain, mesh you get is always of a undefined image but because of lack of definition, the mosaic demands Another element of comparison- Stained glass effect Remember: roleplaying, light true, and coolness of medium with respect to film and radio Biagi- TV and commercial purposes, number
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