Lecture 12 March 2.docx

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St. Michael's College Courses
Francesco Guardiani

SMC219Y1- March 2, 2011 Lecture Xerox review - Post-modernism: too literary - Post-modernity: something spent over 400 years, something after 400 years of modernity - Understand difference between post-modernism and post-modernity - Post-modernism: plurality of ideas - No discipline for media studies *Primary Concerns- turn to Frye - Creation = work* concern of concerns - Establishment of this new environment- what makes us comfortable? – So we turn to architecture! - Environment in which we live with another module - Post-modernity: retrieval of a more restricted environment- the symbol of this architecture is the “arch” – symbol of a changed environment. The arch is the affirmation of a process that is happening now, a retrieval of the past, of the pre- print past. - A past represented by the arch! - So instead of the visual space of modernity, we have re-entered acoustic space - The print is the most linear of all space - Vattimo and the transparent society - Retrieval of tribalism- alive and well- is what Vattimo denies A matter of language- literature as being the centre of our thinking, imagining, literature as a primary form of art. Structuralism- one of the last expressions of modernity Difference with McLuhan in terms of “archetype” – the archetype is the smallest part of a cultural construct. Archetype is just a select creation gone through the entire cycle… ex. The candle was a cliché initially, when it was picked up again and retrieved, retrieved becomes an archetype, that life of the medium has been used, put a side, picked up again, those are the special media that make up the collection of society Difference between Frye and McLuhan – for Frye these things are soul and literary. McLuhan said creation as long as creation…. Age of a new plurality – the literature which is spoken and heard Biagi- Chapter 9 – Digital Media Electronic media specialization 1978- Nicholas Negroponte at the MIT first uses the term “convergence” to describe the intersection of the media industries. 1988- less than one-half of 1% of U.S households are online 1989- Tim Berners-Lee develops programming languages that allow people to share all types of information online and the first browser, which allows people to view information online 1994- Mosaic developed by Marc Andreessen, a browser that allows people to combine picture + text in same online document. Congress also names the new effort to coordinate all the different senders, channels and receivers in the U.S (NII: National Information Infrastructure) A system of communication- print, broadcast signals, discs, tapes, film, started to be conceived not as different entities but rather one own- just as sound and image are so different – we have the same system under which there are different expressions of the same mean 1978 – to mould all things into one, you need a language, this development of a language took place via protocol HTTP (invented before browser invention) – the first browser 1994 Illinois was invented which allowed language to be used (undergraduate students making important discoveries) 1995- More powerful and more widely used- Yahoo browser launched by David Filo and Jerry Yang 1996- Internet advertising reaches $200 million. Congress passes the Communications Decency Act, an unsuccessful attempt to control internet content. 1998- 1 in 4 U.S households online. Congress passes Digital Millennium Copyright Act which makes it illegal to share copyrighted material on the Internet The juxtaposition of the number of people using computers 1988 (less than one half) and 1998 (1 in 4 households using computer online) 1998- Revolution with internet- digital revolution at this stage of electronic culture Year of the digital millennium (1998) – the copyright law- limit use of copyright materials on the internet 1998- Google invented to create better search engine for web by Larry Page and Sergey Brin 1999 Napster sued by The Recording Industry Association 2000- Number of internet businesses explodes 2001: Napster shuts down, the number of internet start-ups begins to shrink and many existing companies close 2003- Legal implications surfaced with more severe control of the material passed through internet. Aggressive campaigns to fight only piracy announced by The Recording Industry Association and the Motion Picture Association With Apple we have the creation of file-sharing $1 per song- iTune creation became landmark in digital technology (2005) – Apple online subscription – in between we have explosion of the personal exchange protocols 1) MySpace(2004) and 2) Facebook 2005-
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