Midterm next week! (format and sample questions online) No mechanization - people doing the work. Stagnant in terms of technology - not many technological changes. So many human hands - capacity for error, many variations. All of the moveable type was set by hand (and everything else was done in- dividually, by hand - e. g. paper, binding) Characterized by the movement from wood to steel presses, innovations in the production of paper, advancements in mass-produced bindings, and me- chanical typesetting. Every point, every level of darnton"s circuit changes. Most books bound in small batches and with animal materials -- not all books bound the same (some people might have all their books in their li- brary bound the same way) Composition of type by hand - take individual letters and setting them one by one. Introduction of edition binding and cloth materials - publisher binds an en- tire edition to look the same.